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Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue. Type I describes a polymicrobial infection, whereas Type II describes a monomicrobial infection. The infection begins locally, at a site of trauma, which may be severe (such as the result of surgery), minor, or even non-apparent. Patients usually complain of intense pain that may seem in excess given the external appearance of the skin. With progression of the disease, tissue becomes swollen, often within hours. Diarrhea and vomiting are also common symptoms. In the early stages, signs of inflammation may not be apparent if the bacteria are deep within the tissue. If they are not deep, signs of inflammation such as redness and swollen or hot skin show very quickly. Skin color may progress to violet and blisters may form, with subsequent necrosis (death) of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with necrotizing fasciitis typically have a fever and appear very ill. Mortality rates have been noted as high as 73 percent if left untreated. Without surgery and medical assistance, such as antibiotics, the infection will rapidly progress, and will eventually lead to death. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





Transparent Factory is the English name of an automobile production plant owned by German carmaker Volkswagen, designed by architect Gunter Henn, and opened in 2002. The original German name is Gläserne Manufaktur (factory made of glass, literally vitreous manufactory). Both the German and English names are a word play on the double meaning of transparent and glassy, referring to both optical transparency and transparency of the production process. The main purpose of the factory is the assembly of Volkswagen's luxury sedan, the Phaeton. Spare capacity was also used to construct Bentley Continental Flying Spur vehicles destined for the European market until 2006, when all work was transferred to Bentley's plant in Crewe, England. The Transparent Factory is situated in the city center of Dresden, the 800-year-old German baroque city known for its arts and craftsmanship. It stands at the former location of the convention center. The factory's walls are made almost completely of glass. Its floors are covered entirely in Canadian maple. Its visitor-friendly layout was designed to accommodate up to 250 tourists per day. There are no smokestacks, no loud noises, and no toxic byproducts. Volkswagen have planted 350 trees in the grounds. The transparent factory handles final assembly only. Operations such as stamping and welding and the painting of the steel bodies take place in Zwickau. Painted bodies arrive at the factory by truck. The other 1200 parts and 34 preassembled components are shipped to a remote logistics center and are transferred from there to the factory via CarGoTrams that run on Dresden's public transport tracks. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



In aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels, but sometimes skids, floats or other elements) that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land. Landing gear usually includes wheels equipped with shock absorbers for solid ground, but some aircraft are equipped with skis for snow or floats for water, and/or skids or pontoons (helicopters). To decrease drag in flight some undercarriages retract into the wings and/or fuselage with wheels flush against the surface or concealed behind doors; this is called retractable gear. Pilots confirming that their landing gear is down and locked refer to "three green" or "three in the green.", a reference to electrical indicator lights from the nosewheel and the two main gears. Amber lights indicate the gears are in the up-locked position; red lights indicates that the landing gear is in transit (neither down and locked nor fully retracted). As aircraft grow larger, they employ more wheels to cope with the increasing weights. The Airbus A340-500/-600 has an additional four-wheel undercarriage bogie on the fuselage centreline, much like the twin-wheel unit in the same general location, used on later DC-10 and MD-11 airliners. The Boeing 747 has five sets of wheels: a nose-wheel assembly and four sets of four-wheel bogies. A set is located under each wing, and two inner sets are located in the fuselage, a little rearward of the outer bogies, adding up to a total of eighteen wheels and tires. The Airbus A380 also has a four-wheel bogie under each wing with two sets of six-wheel bogies under the fuselage. The enormous Ukrainian Antonov An-225 jet cargo aircraft has one of the largest, if not the largest, number of individual wheel/tire assemblies in its landing gear design - with a total of four wheels on the twin-strut nosegear units, and a total of 28 main gear wheel/tire units, adding up to a total of 32 wheels and tires. In the event of a failure of the aircraft's landing gear extension mechanism a back-up is provided. This may be an alternate hydraulic system, a hand-crank, compressed air (nitrogen), pyrotechnic or free-fall system. A free-fall or gravity drop system uses gravity to deploy the landing gear into the down and locked position. To accomplish this the pilot activates a switch or mechanical handle in the cockpit, which releases the up-lock. Gravity then pulls the landing gear down and deploys it. Once in position the landing gear is mechanically locked and safe to use and land on. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Right whales are the species of large baleen whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena. Three right whale species are recognized in this genus. They are closely related genetically to the larger, arctic Bowhead Whale, which is currently placed in its own genus, Balaena. Over the last two centuries the taxonomy of these species has been in flux, with the right whales often being considered members of the Balaena genus along with the Bowhead. Because of the genetic similarity, all four of these species are included in the taxonomic family Balaenidae, and sometimes all members of this family are referred to as right whales. The Pygmy Right Whale (Capera marginata), a much smaller whale of the Southern Hemisphere, was also included in the Balaenidae family, but has recently been found to be so different as to justify its own family Neobalaenidae. Right whales can grow up to 18 m (59 ft) long and weigh up to 100 tons. Their rotund bodies are mostly black, with distinctive callosities (roughened patches of skin) on their heads. They are called "right whales" because whalers thought the whales were the "right" ones to hunt, as they float when killed and often swim within sight of the shore. Populations were vastly reduced by intensive harvesting during the active years of the whaling industry. Today, instead of hunting them, people often watch these acrobatic whales for pleasure. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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