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Samuel Leroy Jackson is an American film and television actor and film producer. After Jackson became involved with the Civil Rights Movement, he moved on to acting in theater at Morehouse College, and then films. After the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Jackson attended the funeral in Atlanta as one of the ushers. Jackson then flew to Memphis to join an equal rights protest march. In a Parade interview Jackson revealed: "I was angry about the assassination, but I wasn’t shocked by it. I knew that change was going to take something different — not sit-ins, not peaceful coexistence." In 1969, Jackson and several other students held members of the Morehouse College board of trustees hostage on the campus, demanding reform in the school's curriculum and governance. The college eventually agreed to change its policy, but Jackson was charged with and eventually convicted of unlawful confinement, a second-degree felony. Jackson was then suspended for two years for his criminal record and his actions, although he would later return to the college to earn his Bachelor of Arts in Drama in 1972. Early in his career, Jackson developed alcoholism and cocaine addictions, resulting in him being unable to proceed with the two plays as they continued to Broadway. Throughout his early film career, mainly in minimal roles in films such as Coming to America and various television films, Jackson was mentored by Morgan Freeman. After a 1981 performance in the play A Soldier's Play, Jackson was introduced to director Spike Lee who would later include him in small roles for the films School Daze (1988) and Do the Right Thing (1989). He also played a minor role in the 1990 Martin Scorsese film Goodfellas as real-life Mafia associate Stacks Edwards and also worked as a stand-in on The Cosby Show for Bill Cosby. After completing these films, Jackson's cocaine addiction had worsened. As a result, his family entered him into a New York rehab clinic. When he successfully completed rehab, Jackson appeared in Jungle Fever, as a crack cocaine addict, a role which Jackson called cathartic as he was recovering from his addiction. The film was so acclaimed that the 1991 Cannes Film Festival created a special "Supporting Actor" award just for him. In 1994 he was cast as Jules Winnfield in Pulp Fiction, and his performance received several award nominations and critical acclaim. Warning: video contains adult content. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The desert tortoise is a species of tortoise native to the Mojave desert and Sonoran desert of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. This tortoise may attain a length of 10 to 14 inches, with males being slightly larger than females. Male tortoises have a longer gular horn than females, their plastron (lower shell) is concave compared to female tortoises. Males have larger tails than females do. Their shells are high-domed, and greenish-tan to dark brown in color. Desert tortoises can grow from 4–6" in height and weigh 8–15 lb when fully grown. The front limbs have heavy, claw-like scales and are flattened for digging. Back legs are more stumpy and elephantine. The tortoise is able to live where ground temperature may exceed 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 degrees Celsius) because of its ability to dig underground burrows and escape the heat. At least 95% of its life is spent in burrows. There, it is also protected from freezing winter weather while dormant, from November through February or March. With its burrow, this tortoise creates a subterranean environment that can be beneficial to other reptiles, mammals, birds and invertebrates. Much of the tortoise’s water intake comes from moisture in the grasses and wildflowers they consume in the spring. A large urinary bladder can store over forty percent of the tortoise's body weight in water, urea, uric acid and nitrogenous wastes. During very dry times they may give off waste as a white paste rather than a watery urine. During periods of adequate rainfall, they drink copiously from any pools they find, and eliminate solid urates. Adult tortoises can survive a year or more without access to water. One defense mechanism the tortoise has when it is handled or molested is to empty its bladder. This can leave the tortoise in a very vulnerable condition in dry areas, and they should never be alarmed, handled or picked up in the wild unless they are in imminent danger (like in a road). [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The nurse shark is a common inshore bottom-dwelling shark, found in tropical and subtropical waters on the continental and insular shelves. It is frequently found at depths of one meter or less but may occur down to 12 m. Its common habitats are reefs, channels between mangrove islands and sand flats. It occurs in the Western Atlantic from Rhode Island down to southern Brazil; in the Eastern Atlantic from Cameroon to Gabon; in the Eastern Pacific from the southern Baja California to Peru; and around the islands of the Caribbean. Behavior and diet Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or in crevices within the reef, the nurse sharks seem to prefer specific resting sites and will return to them each day after the night's hunting. By night, the sharks are largely solitary; they spend most of their time rifling through the bottom sediments in search of food. Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, mollusks, tunicates, sea snakes, and other fish, particularly stingrays. Their diet consists of a large number of marine invertebrates - spiny lobsters, crabs, shrimp, sea urchins, octopuses, squid, and marine snails and bivalves. They are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch; although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral. Nurse sharks have been observed resting on the bottom with their bodies supported on their fins, possibly providing a false shelter for crustaceans which they then ambush and eat. The nurse shark is not widely commercially fished, but because of its sluggish behaviour it is an easy target for local fisheries. Its skin is exceptionally tough and is prized for leather; its flesh is consumed fresh and salted and its liver is utilised for oil. It is not taken as a game fish. It has been reported in some unprovoked attacks on humans but is not generally perceived as a threat. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

Ameloblastoma is a rare, benign tumor of odontogenic epithelium much more commonly appearing in the lower jaw than the upper jaw. It was recognized in 1827 by Cusack. This type of odontogenic neoplasm was designated as an adamantinoma in 1885 by the French physician Louis-Charles Malassez. It was finally renamed to the modern name ameloblastoma in 1930 by Ivey and Churchill. While these tumors are rarely malignant or metastatic, and progress slowly, the resulting lesions can cause severe abnormalities of the face and jaw. Additionally, because abnormal cell growth easily infiltrates and destroys surrounding bony tissues, wide surgical excision is required to treat this disorder. Ameloblastomas are often associated with the presence of unerupted teeth. Symptoms include painless swelling, facial deformity if severe enough, pain if the swelling impinges on other structures, loose teeth, ulcers, and periodontal disease. Lesions will occur in the mandible and maxilla,although 75% occur in the ascending ramus area and will result in extensive and grotesque deformitites of the mandible and maxilla. In the maxilla it can extend into the maxillary sinus and floor of the nose. The lesion has a tendency to expand the bony cortices because slow growth rate of the lesion allows time for periosteum to develop thin shell of bone ahead of the expanding lesion. This shell of bone cracks when palpated and this phenomenon is referred to as "Egg Shell Cracking" or crepitus, an important diagnostic feature. Ameloblastoma is tentatively diagnosed through radiographic examination and must be confirmed by histological examination. Radiographically, it appears as a lucency in the bone of varying size and features—sometimes it is a single, well-demarcated lesion whereas it often demonstrates as a multiloculated "soap bubble" appearance. Resorption of roots of involved teeth can be seen in some cases, but is not unique to ameloblastoma. The disease is most often found in the posterior body and angle of the mandible, but can occur anywhere in either the maxilla or mandible. Ameloblastoma is often associated with bony-impacted wisdom teeth—one of the many reasons dentists recommend having them extracted. Radiation is ineffective in many cases of ameloblastoma. There have also been reports of sarcoma being induced as the result of using radiation to treat ameloblastoma. Chemotherapy is also often ineffective. However, there is some controversy regarding this and some indication that some ameloblastomas might be more responsive to radiation that previously thought. While the Mayo Clinic recommends surgery for almost all ameloblastomas, there are situations in which a Mayo Clinic physician might recommend radiation therapy. These include malignancy, inability to completely remove the ameloblastoma, recurrence, unacceptable loss of function, and unacceptable cosmetic damage. In the case of radiotherapy, oncologists at the Mayo Clinic would use intensity-modulated radiotherapy. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE] is not affiliated with or endorsed by wikipedia. wikipedia and the wikipedia globe are registered trademarks of
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