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Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, also known as the Andes flight disaster, and in South America as Miracle in the Andes (El Milagro de los Andes) was a chartered flight carrying 45 rugby team members and associates that crashed in the Andes on October 13, 1972. The last of the 16 survivors were rescued on December 23, 1972. More than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash and several more quickly succumbed to cold and injury. Of the twenty-nine who were alive a few days after the accident, another eight were killed by an avalanche that swept over their shelter in the wreckage. The crash survivors, thinking they would be found and rescued within days, had little food and no source of heat in the harsh climate, at over 3,600 metres (12,000 ft) altitude. The survivors had a small amount of food: a few chocolate bars, other assorted snacks, and several bottles of wine. During the days following the crash they divided out this food in very small amounts so as not to exhaust their meager supply. Fito also devised a way to melt snow into water by using metal from the seats and placing snow on it. The snow then melted in the sun and dripped into empty wine bottles. Even with this strict rationing, their food stock dwindled quickly. Furthermore, there was no natural vegetation or animals on the snow-covered mountain. The group thus survived by collectively making a decision to eat flesh from the bodies of their dead comrades. Faced with starvation and radio news reports that the search for them had been abandoned, the survivors fed on the dead passengers who had been preserved in the snow. Rescuers did not learn of the survivors until 72 days after the crash when passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, after a 12-day trek across the Andes, found a Chilean huaso, who gave them food and then alerted authorities about the existence of the other survivors. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

Plasma lamps (also variously plasma globes, balls, domes, spheres, tubes or orbs) are novelty items which were most popular in the 1980s. The plasma lamp was invented by Nikola Tesla after his experimentation with high frequency currents in an evacuated glass tube for the purpose of studying high voltage phenomena, but the modern versions were first designed by Bill Parker. Placing a hand near the glass alters the high-frequency electric field[citation needed], causing a single beam to migrate from the inner ball to the point of contact. An electric current is produced within any conductive object near the orb, as the glass does not block the electromagnetic field created by the electric current flowing through the plasma (though the insulator does block the current itself). Caution should be made when placing electronic devices near or upon the plasma lamp: not only may the glass become hot, but the high voltage may place a substantial static charge on the device, even through a protective plastic casing. The radio frequency field produced by plasma lamps can interfere with the operation of touchpads used on laptop computers, digital audio players, cell phones, and other similar devices. Some types can radiate sufficient RFI to interfere with cordless telephones and Wi-Fi devices several feet away. Additionally, when a metal object (such as a coin) is placed on the surface of a plasma lamp's glass, a danger of shock and burning exists; it is very easy for electricity to be emitted from the lamp if the metal comes in contact or proximity with certain other materials, including human tissue. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

Iran Air Flight 655, also known as IR655, was a civilian airliner shot down by the United States Navy on Sunday 3 July 1988, over the Strait of Hormuz. Starting in September 1980 the war between Iraq and Iran had begun to witness attacks against oil tankers and merchant shipping of neighboring countries. On 29 April 1988 the U.S. expanded the scope of the U.S. Navy's protection to all friendly neutral shipping in the Persian Gulf outside of declared exclusion zones, which set the military scene of the shootdown incident. At about the same time, Vincennes was rushed to the area on a short-notice deployment, as a result of high-level decisions, to compensate for the lack of AWACS coverage which hampered U.S. monitoring of the southern Persian Gulf. Vincennes departed San Diego on 25 April and arrived in Bahrain on 29 May, under the command of Captain William C. Rogers III and fitted with the then-new Aegis combat system The aircraft, an Airbus A300B2 operated by Iran Air as IR655, was flying from Bandar Abbas, Iran, to Dubai, UAE, when it was destroyed by the U.S. Navy's guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes, killing all 290 passengers and crew aboard, including 66 children, ranking it the seventh among the deadliest airliner fatalities.[2] It was the highest death toll of any aviation incident in the Indian Ocean and the highest death toll of any incident involving an Airbus A300 anywhere in the world. The Vincennes was traversing the Straits of Hormuz inside Iranian territorial waters and at the time of the attack, IR655 was within Iranian airspace. According to the US government, the crew mistakenly identified the Iranian Airbus A300 as an attacking F-14 Tomcat fighter. The Iranian government maintained that the Vincennes knowingly shot down the civilian aircraft. The event generated a great deal of controversy and criticism of the US. Some analysts have blamed US military commanders and the captain of the Vincennes for reckless and aggressive behavior in a tense and dangerous environment. In 1996, the United States and Iran reached "an agreement in full and final settlement of all disputes, differences, claims, counterclaims" relating to the incident at the International Court of Justice. As part of the settlement, the United States agreed to pay $61.8 million in compensation for the Iranians killed. The incident overshadowed U.S.-Iran relations for many years. Following the explosion of Pan Am Flight 103 six months later, the British and American governments initially blamed the PFLP-GC, a Palestinian militant group backed by Syria, with assumptions of assistance from Iran in retaliation for Iran Air Flight 655. The cause of the crash was later determined to be a bomb associated with the Libyan intelligence service. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The Patterdale Terrier is a small working dog. In the UK it is not a dog type that was initially recognised by the UK Kennel Cub as a pedigree. As such the Patterdale has been bred as a working dog, so the appearance can differ widely. This phenomenon is common in several types of working dog, including as the Border Collie. According to breed standards, this working terrier stands between 25.5 cm (10 in) and 12 inches at the withers and weighs between 10 and 13 pounds. The preferred size depends on the quarry. In the UK, all sizes are in use, depending on the terrain and quarry: in the UK, the most common quarry was the fox. In the eastern United States, smaller dogs are preferred and 30 cm (12 in) tall and 5.5 kg (12 lb) is the preferred size for groundhogs. However, somewhat larger dogs can be used in the American West when ground barn hunting larger raccoons and badgers. Patterdale puppies tend to be bold and confident beyond their capabilities, and responsible owners of working dogs will not overmatch their dogs or introduce them to formidable quarry before they are around a year and a half of age. Even as a yearling, the dog will not be fully capable. The Patterdale is a working terrier, and terrier work requires a high-energy dog with a strong prey drive and a loud voice. As a result, Patterdales are very energetic dogs, and can be quite vocal. It is not uncommon for a Patterdale to be cat-aggressive, and homes which have other small fur-bearing pets (such as hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs) would do well to think through the ramifications of bringing a working terrier into the house. However, as with all breeds there is variation. Some Patterdales are more animal-friendly, befriending and cleaning cats and other dogs alike. Patterdales are prone to the sulks if their owners pay attention to others. Patterdales display an intriguing crawl, similar to an act of prostration, used to gain attention and stalk quarry through long grass. This originates from their inbred ability to compress their lungs to fit into small spaces, in search of their prey. The Patterdale was developed in the harsh environment in the north of England, an area unsuitable for arable farming and too hilly for cattle. Sheep farming is the predominant farming activity on these hills. Since the fox is perceived by farmers as being predatory on sheep and small farm animals, terriers are used for predator control. Unlike the dirt dens found in the hunt country of the south, the rocky dens found in the north do not allow much digging. As a consequence, the terrier needs to be able to bolt the fox from the rock crevice or dispatch it where it is found. The use of "hard" dogs to hunt foxes in this way was made illegal in England and Wales by the Hunting Act 2004, as it runs counter to the code of practice under the Act. In the United States, The Patterdale Terrier was recognised by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1995; yet it remains unrecognized by the American Kennel Club. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE] is not affiliated with or endorsed by wikipedia. wikipedia and the wikipedia globe are registered trademarks of
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