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At the end of World War II, two all-metal aircraft emerged, the Model 35 Bonanza and the Cessna 195, that represented very different approaches to the premium-end of the postwar civil aviation market. With its high wing, seven-cylinder radial engine, fixed tailwheel undercarriage and roll-down side windows, the Cessna 195 was little more than a continuation of prewar technology; the 35 Bonanza, however, was more like the fighters developed during the war, featuring an easier-to-manage horizontally-opposed six cylinder engine, a rakishly streamlined shape, retractable nosewheel undercarriage (although the nosewheel initially was not steerable, or castering) and low-wing configuration. Designed by a team led by Ralph Harmon, the model 35 Bonanza was a relatively fast, low-wing monoplane at a time when most light aircraft were still made of wood and fabric. The Model 35 featured retractable landing gear, and its signature V-tail (equipped with a combination elevator-rudder called a ruddervator), which made it both efficient and the most distinctive private aircraft in the sky. In 1982 the production of the V-tail Bonanza stopped but the conventional-tail Model 33 continued in production until 1995.Still built today is the Model 36 Bonanza, a longer-bodied, straight-tail variant of the original design, introduced in 1968. All Bonanzas share an unusual feature: The yoke and rudder pedals are interconnected by a system of bungee cords that assist in keeping the airplane in coordinated flight during turns. The bungee system allows the pilot to make coordinated turns using the yoke alone, or with minimal rudder input, during cruise flight. Increased right-rudder pressure is still required on takeoff to overcome torque and P-factor. In the landing phase, the bungee system must be overridden by the pilot when making crosswind landings, which require cross-controlled inputs to keep the nose of the airplane aligned with the runway center line without drifting left or right. This feature started with the V-tail and persists on the current production model. As of 2010, it is still being produced by Hawker Beechcraft, and has been in continuous production longer than any other airplane in history. More than 17,000 Bonanzas of all variants have been built. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The Resolute desk is a large, nineteenth-century partners' desk often chosen by presidents of the United States for use in the White House Oval Office. It was a gift from Queen Victoria to President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and was built from the timbers of the British Arctic Exploration ship Resolute. HMS Resolute was part of a five-ship squadron under Edward Belcher sent from Britain in April 1852 to search for the missing British explorer Sir John Franklin, who had left Britain in 1845 in search of the fabled Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic. After the Resolute was broken up, Queen Victoria asked for several desks to be built from her timbers. Four desks were designed and made by William Evenden. A large partner's desk was presented to President Hayes on 23 November 1880; a smaller lady's desk, was presented to the widow of Henry Grinnell - this desk is now in the New Bedford Whaling Museum; and the queen had two desks made for herself: a twin to the one given to the president and people of the United States and is currently in Windsor Castle, and a writing table, which she had made for her private yacht, the Victoria and Albert. Many presidents since Rutherford Hayes have used the desk at various locations in the White House, but it was Jackie Kennedy who first brought the desk into the Oval Office in 1960 for President Kennedy. It was removed from the White House for only one time, and this was after the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, when President Johnson allowed the desk to go on a traveling exhibition with the Kennedy Presidential Library. After this it was on display in the Smithsonian. President Jimmy Carter brought the desk back to the Oval Office, where President Ronald Reagan, President Bill Clinton, President George W. Bush and now President Barack Obama have used it in this, its most famous location. The desk has been modified twice. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered a hinged front panel for the key hole opening in order to hide his wheelchair. The panel was commissioned in 1944 but President Roosevelt did not live to use it: it was not delivered until 1945, following the president's death on April 12. President Truman had the panel installed anyway to honor Roosevelt's memory. The panel features the presidential seal—one of only four in the White House that have the eagle's head turned towards the 13 arrows in the eagle's left talon, as opposed to the now-official arrangement with the eagle turned towards the olive branch in the right talon with the 13 leaves. The second modification to the desk was made under Ronald Reagan. President Reagan used a chair he had brought from the capitol in California; it was tall enough that his knees bumped into the desk when he moved. As a result, the desk was raised two inches to accommodate Reagan and his chair; this was achieved by adding a separate, uniform base to the desk. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

A glow stick is a single-use translucent plastic tube containing isolated substances which when combined make light through a chemical reaction-induced chemiluminescence which does not require an electrical power source. Millions of glow sticks are sold annually. Glow sticks give off light when the fragile glass container inside breaks, mixing the two chemicals together. This chemical reaction then spreads to the whole glow stick as the chemicals mix further. This is why only a small part of the stick will glow when snapped but given a few seconds the entire stick is glowing. Glow sticks are used for many purposes. They are waterproof, do not use batteries, generate no heat, are inexpensive, and are disposable. They can tolerate high pressures, such as those found underwater. They are used as light sources and light markers by military forces, campers, and recreational divers doing night diving. Glow sticks are considered the only safe light source immediately following an earthquake, hurricane, tornado, and other emergency situations due to the fact that they do not use any kind of electricity to work and there is no danger of sparking. Because they do not have batteries or contain electrified filaments like normal flashlights they are safe for use in explosive environments. Special glow stick formulas emitting infrared radiation are used in conjunction with night vision devices. Glow sticks are used as lures for catching Swordfish. Glowsticking is the use of glow sticks in dancing. This is one of their most widely known uses in popular culture as they are frequently used for entertainment at parties , concerts and dance clubs. They are carried by marching band conductors for night-time performances; furthermore, in Hong Kong glow sticks are widely used during the annual Mid-Autumn Festival. Glow sticks carried by Trick-or-Treaters on Halloween neatly serve multiple functions as toys, readily visible and unusual night-time warnings to motorists, and luminous markings which enable parents to keep their brightly color-coded children in sight. Yet another aesthetic usage is for balloon-carried light effects. The Guinness Book of Records says the world's biggest glowstick, 8 ft 4 in tall, was built and illuminated at the opening ceremony of the second Bang Face Weekender at a holiday park in Camber Sands, East Sussex, England, on April 24, 2009. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

A tonsillolith, also known as a tonsil stone or a zot, is a piece or, more commonly, a cluster of calcareous matter that forms in the rear of the mouth, in the crevasses (called tonsillar crypts) of the palatine tonsils (commonly known as tonsils). Protruding tonsilloliths may feel like foreign objects lodged in the tonsil crypt. Tonsilloliths occur more frequently in adults than in children. Many small tonsil stones do not cause any noticeable symptoms. Even when they are large, some tonsil stones are only discovered accidentally on X-rays or CT scans. Other symptoms include a metallic taste, throat closing or tightening, coughing fits, and choking. Larger tonsilloliths may have multiple symptoms, including recurrent halitosis, which frequently accompanies a tonsil infection, sore throat, white debris, a bad taste in the back of the throat, difficulty swallowing, otalgia, and tonsil swelling. A medical study conducted in 2007 found an association between tonsilloliths and bad breath. Among those with bad breath, 75% of the subjects had tonsilloliths while only 6% of subjects with normal halitometry values (normal breath) had tonsilloliths. A foreign body sensation may also exist in the back of throat. A common method of removal is with use of the tongue. Unlike other methods, this does not provoke the gag reflex. Various other methods also exist. While difficult to perform due to the gag reflex, a quick brushing with a toothbrush may remove surfaced tonsilloliths. Another effective way to remove tonsil stones is by pressing a finger or cotton swab against the bottom of the tonsil and pushing upward. The pressure acts to squeeze out stones. Using an oral analgesic like Chloraseptic can help suppress the gag reflex while cleaning the tonsils or crypts. Embedded tonsilloliths (which develop inside tonsils) are not easily removed, but will naturally erupt from the tonsils over time. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE] is not affiliated with or endorsed by wikipedia. wikipedia and the wikipedia globe are registered trademarks of
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