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Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fat are removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery. Blepharoplasty is often done as an elective surgery for cosmetic reasons. Lower eyelid blepharoplasty is almost always done for cosmetic reasons, to improve puffy lower eyelid "bags" and reduce the wrinkling of skin. Asian blepharoplasty or double eyelid surgery is a special type of blepharoplasty that creates a crease in the upper eyelid. This "supratarsal fold" is common in many races but absent in about half of Asians. Surgery can artificially create this crease and make a 'single-lidded' patient appear 'double-lidded'. It is the most popular form of cosmetic surgery among those of east and southeast Asian background. Blepharoplasty is sometimes needed for functional reasons. When an advanced amount of upper eyelid skin is present, the skin may protrude over the eyelashes and causes a loss of peripheral vision. The outer and upper parts of the visual field are most commonly affected and the condition may cause difficulty with activities such as driving or reading. In this circumstance, upper eyelid blepharoplasty is performed to improve peripheral vision. Blepharoplasty is usually performed through external incisions made along the natural skin lines of the eyelids, such as the creases of the upper lids and below the lashes of the lower lids. Incisions may be made from the inside surface of the lower eyelid (transconjunctival blepharoplasty); this allows removal of lower eyelid fat without an externally-visible scar, but does not allow excess skin to be removed. External skin resurfacing with a chemical peel or carbon dioxide laser may be performed simultaneously. This allows for a faster recovery process. The recovery process after a blepharoplasty may take up to few weeks. Patients will receive instruction for during the home care and most of the time they receive painkillers that ease the pain caused by the incisions. The first two days after the operation has been performed, the patient receives an ointment treatment to keep the incisions lubricated. Doctors recommend keeping iced eye pads on the eyes to reduce bruising and swelling. Eye drops may also be prescribed as they may help in pain management and in preventing infections. Patients are recommended to keep their heads higher than the body while sleeping as this will accelerate the recovery process. The cost is determined in part by a patient's geographical location and the actual surgeon who is performing the surgery but also by the related fees. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in the United States, the national average cost of blepharoplasty surgeon fees in 2007 was $3,134. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Warrenpoint ambush (also known as the Warrenpoint massacre by some media sources) was a guerrilla assault by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on 27 August 1979. At 16:40 a 500 pounds (227 kg) fertiliser bomb hidden in a lorry loaded with strawbales, parked close to Narrow Water Castle, was detonated by remote control as an army convoy of a Land-Rover and two four-ton trucks drove past on the A2 road. The explosion caught the rear truck in the convoy killing six members of 2nd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment. After the first explosion the British soldiers, believing that they had come under attack from the IRA, began firing across the narrow maritime border with the Republic of Ireland, a distance of only 57 m (187 feet). An uninvolved civilian, Michael Hudson, an Englishman whose father was a coachman at Buckingham Palace was killed by British forces during the shooting, and his cousin Barry Hudson injured. According to RUC researchers, the soldiers may have mistaken the sound of ammunition cooking off from the Land-Rover destroyed in the original explosion for enemy fire from across the border. On hearing the first explosion a Royal Marine unit alerted the British Army of an explosion on the road and reinforcements from the Parachute Regiment were dispatched to the scene by road. At 17.12, thirty two minutes after the first explosion, a second device concealed in milk pails exploded against the gate lodge on the opposite side of the road, completely destroying it. The IRA had been studying how the British Army acted after a bombing and correctly assessed that the soldiers would set up an Incident Command Point (ICP) in the nearby gate house. The second explosion, caused by an 800 pounds (363 kg) fertiliser home-made bomb, killed twelve soldiers - ten from the Parachute Regiment died along with the two Queen's Own Highlanders soldiers. Mike Jackson, then a Major in the Parachute Regiment was at the scene soon after the second explosion and later described seeing pieces of human remains over the area and the face of his friend, Major Peter Fursman, still recognisable after it had been completely ripped away by the explosion from his head. Only one of Colonel Blair's epaulettes remained to identify him. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The American Bullfrog, often simply known as the Bullfrog in Canada and the United States, is an aquatic frog, a member of the family Ranidae, or “true frogs”, native to much of North America. This is a frog of larger, permanent water bodies, swamps, ponds, lakes, where it is usually found along the water's edge. On rainy nights, bullfrogs along with many other amphibians, go overland and may be seen in numbers on country roads. American bullfrogs live longer in warm weather. They have been widely introduced across North America. The original, naturally determined range did not include far western regions where it is found today. Bullfrogs grow on average to be about 3 and a half to 6 inches long in body length, legs add another 7–10 inches to length. The adult bullfrog skeleton is representative of tetrapod vertebrates, comprising an axial skeleton and an appendicular skeleton. Ranids, however, lack ribs. The pronounced pair of dorsal humps in the back of ranid frogs are the ends of the pelvic ilia, homologues of the human hips. Ranid frogs absorb oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide through their moist skin, the lining of the mouth, and the lungs. When in the air, as opposed to underwater, frogs continuously elevate and lower the floor of the mouth, which serves to ventilate the mouth, or buccal cavity, and exchange gases through the richly vascularized lining of the mouth. Fertilization is external in ranid frogs. In the mating grasp, or amplexus, the male rides on top of the female, grasping her with his forelimbs posterior to her forelimbs. The female bullfrog deposits her eggs in the water and the male simultaneously releases sperm. Breeding begins in late spring or early summer. Males defend and call from territories, attracting females into a territory to mate. The call is reminiscent of the roar of a bull, hence the frog's common name. A female may produce up to 20,000 eggs in one clutch. Stomach content studies going back to 1913 suggest the bullfrog preys on any animal it can overpower and stuff down its throat. Bullfrog stomachs have been found to contain rodents, small turtles, snakes, frogs—including bullfrogs, birds, even a bat, as well as the many invertebrates which are the usual food of ranid frogs. These studies furthermore reveal the bullfrog's diet to be unique among North American Rana in the inclusion of large percentages of aquatic animals, e.g., fish, tadpoles, Planorbid snails, Dytiscid beetles. The specialized ability of bullfrogs to capture submerged and large strong prey comprises a pronounced biting motor pattern that follows up on the initial and typical ranid tongue strike. Adaptation to target image displacement due to light refraction at the water-air interface consists of the bullfrog's application of tongue surface comparatively posterior to the perceived location of the prey target. The comparative ability of bullfrogs to capture submerged prey, compared to that of the green frog, leopard frog, and wood frog was also demonstrated in laboratory experiments. While occasionally kept as pets, the American Bullfrog provides a food source, especially in the Southern United States and in some areas of the Midwestern United States. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Spirit of Ecstasy is the name of the hood ornament on Rolls-Royce cars. It is in the form of a woman leaning forwards with her arms outstretched behind and above her. Billowing cloth runs from her arms to her back, resembling wings. The Spirit of Ecstasy, also called "Emily", "Silver Lady" or "Flying Lady", was designed by Charles Robinson Sykes and carries with it a story about a secret passion between John Walter Edward Scott-Montagu, and his secret love and the model for the emblem, Eleanor Velasco Thornton. Eleanor was John Walter's secretary, and their love was to remain hidden, limited to their circle of friends, for more than a decade. The reason for the secrecy was Eleanor's impoverished social and economic status, which was an obstacle to their love. John-Walter, succumbing to family pressures, married Lady Cecil Victoria Constance, but the secret love affair continued. Eleanor died on 30 December 1915, going down with the SS Persia, when the ship was torpedoed off Crete by a German submarine, whilst she accompanied Lord Montagu on his journey to India, four years after she had been immortalized by her bereaved lover. Today's Spirit of Ecstasy stands at 3 inches and, for safety, is mounted on a spring-loaded mechanism designed to retract instantly into the radiator shell if struck from any direction. There is a button within the vehicle which can retract/extend the emblem when pressed. She can be made of highly polished stainless steel, sterling silver or 24-carat gold, the sterling silver and gold being optional extras. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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