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A prepaid mobile phone is a mobile phone for which credit is purchased in advance of service use. The purchased credit is used to pay for mobile phone services at the point the service is accessed or consumed. If there is no available credit then access to the requested service is denied by the mobile phone network. The history of the prepaid mobile phone begins in the 1990s when larger markets were being sought after by the mobile phone operators. Before this date, all mobile phone services were offered on a post paid basis, which excluded people with a poor credit rating. A prepaid plan may have a lower cost for low usage patterns (e.g. a telephone for emergency use) and make it easier to control spending by limiting indebtedness. They often have fewer contractual obligations - no early termination fee, freedom to change providers, plans, able to be used by those unable to take out a contract (i.e. under 18). Depending on the local laws, they may be available to those who do not have a permanent address, phone number, or credit card. This makes them popular amongst students away from their home towns and travellers. Often, pay-as-you-go customers pay more for their calls and SMS messages, and are limited in what they can do with their phone - calls to international or premium rate numbers may be blocked, and they may not be able to roam. These limitations are often due to the complexity of managing the credit system for high price calls, or when users are not on their home network. In addition, a prepaid phone has a balance which can be queried at any time, and also topped up periodically. Examples of ways in which the balance can be topped up are: a credit card or debit card, direct from a bank account using an ATM, in a retail store by purchasing a "top-up" or "refill" card at retail. These cards are stamped with a unique code (often under a scratch-off panel) which must be entered into the phone in order to add the credit onto the balance, in a retail store using a swipe card where the balance is credited automatically to the phone after the retailer accepts payment. Credit purchased for a prepaid mobile phone may have a time limit, for example 90 days from the date the last credit was added. In these cases, customers who do not add more credit before expiration will lose their remaining balance. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States. While not the first sit-ins of the African-American Civil Rights Movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, leading to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in American history. The primary event took place at the Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth's store, now the International Civil Rights Center and Museum. The sit-in movement used the strategy of nonviolent resistance. As far back as 1942, the Congress of Racial Equality sponsored sit-ins in Chicago, as they did in St. Louis in 1949 and Baltimore in 1952. In August, 1939, African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker organized a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia library. On February 1, 1960, four students from the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina sat down at the lunch counter inside the Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina. The men, later known as the Greensboro Four, ordered coffee. Following store policy, the lunch counter staff refused to serve the African American men at the "whites only" counter and the store's manager asked them to leave. The four university freshmen -- Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, Jr. (later known as Jibreel Khazan), and David Richmond -- stayed until the store closed. The next day, more than twenty African American students who had been recruited from other campus groups came to the store to join the sit-in. White customers heckled the black students, who read books and studied to keep busy. The lunch counter staff continued to refuse service. Newspaper reporters and a TV videographer covered the second day of peaceful demonstrations and others in the community learned of the protests. On the third day, more than 60 people came to the Woolworth's store. A statement issued by Woolworth's national headquarters said the company would "abide by local custom" and maintain its segregated policy. The movement then spread to other Southern cities including Richmond, Virginia, and Nashville, Tennessee where the students of the Nashville Student Movement had been trained for a sit-in by civil rights activist James Lawson and had already started the process when Greensboro occurred. Although the majority of these protests were peaceful, there were instances where protests became violent. For example, in Chattanooga, Tennessee, tensions rose between blacks and whites and fights broke out. As the sit-ins continued, tensions grew in Greensboro and students began a far-reaching boycott of stores that had segregated lunch counters. Sales at the boycotted stores dropped by a third, leading the stores' owners to abandon their segregation policies. Black employees of Greensboro’s Woolworth’s store were the first to be served at the store's lunch counter, on July 25, 1960. The next day, the entire Woolworth's chain was desegregated, serving blacks and whites alike. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Big Bertha; literal translation "Thick (or fat) Bertha", is the name of a type of super-heavy howitzer developed by the famous armaments manufacturer Krupp in Germany on the eve of World War I. Only two examples of the howitzer were available at the beginning of World War I, and they were used to destroy the Belgian forts at Liège, Namur, and Antwerp, and the French fort at Maubeuge, as well as other forts in northern France. Bertha proved very effective against older constructions such as the Belgian forts designed in the 1880s by Brialmont, destroying several in a few days. The most spectacular success was the Belgian Fort Loncin which exploded after taking a direct hit to its ammunition magazine. The concrete used in the Belgian forts was of poor quality, however, and consisted of layers of concrete only, with no steel reinforcement. Big Bertha gained a strong reputation on both sides of the lines due to its early impressive successes in smashing the forts at Liege. The German press went wild with enthusiasm and declared the Bertha a Wunderwaffe. When used later during the German assault upon Verdun in February, 1916, however, it proved ineffective, as the newer construction of this fort, consisting of concrete reinforced with steel, could withstand even the large semi-armour-piercing shells of the Berthas. Two Big Berthas were captured at the end of the war. One was taken to the United States and evaluated at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. The gun was later placed on display at the United States Army Ordnance Museum., and eventually scrapped during the 1950s. The fate of the other is unknown. Claims that another Bertha survived on Krupp's proving ground at Meppen, and was used again in World War II in the Battle of Sevastopol, are based on a misconception. It was in fact a Gamma-Gerät howitzer which was assembled at Meppen after the Great War from parts scavenged by Krupp, and went on to see action in the Second World War, along with the modern and even larger Mörser Karl and Schwerer Gustav. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





The Naga Jolokia - also known as Bhut Jolokia, Ghost Chili, Ghost Pepper, Naga Morich - is a chili pepper. It is a naturally occurring inter-specific hybrid originating in the Assam region of northeastern India. It also grows in the Indian states of Nagaland and Manipur. In 2007, it was confirmed by Guinness World Records to be the hottest chili in the world, replacing the Red Savina. In 2000, scientists at India's Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) reported a rating of 855,000 units on the Scoville scale, and in 2004 an Indian company obtained a rating of 1,041,427 units through HPLC analysis. This makes it almost twice as hot as the Red Savina pepper, Guinness World Record holder at that time. For comparison, pure capsaicin (the chemical responsible for the pungency of pepper plants) rates at 15,000,000–16,000,000 Scoville units. The effect of climate on the Scoville rating of Naga Jolokia peppers is dramatic. A 2005 Indian study that compared the percentage availability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Naga Jolokia peppers grown in both Tezpur (Assam) and Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh) showed that the heat of the pepper is decreased by over 50% in Gwalior's more arid climate (similar temperatures but less humid, much lower rainfall). The pepper is used as a spice in food or eaten alone. One seed from a Naga Jolokia can produce sustained intense pain sensations in the mouth for up to 30 minutes before subsiding. Extreme care should be taken when ingesting the pepper and its seeds, so as to not get it in the eyes. It is used as a cure for stomach ailments. It is also used as a remedy to summer heat, presumably by inducing perspiration. In northeastern India the peppers are smeared on fences or used in smoke bombs as a safety precaution to keep wild elephants at a distance. In 2009, Indian defense scientists claimed to have found a new place to use the chilies -- in hand grenades. The scientists aim to use the Chillies to control rioters to immobilize people without killing them. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





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