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Miniatur Wunderland (German for miniature wonderland) is a model railway attraction in Hamburg, Germany and the largest of its kind in the world. As of January 2011, the railway consists of 12,000 metres (39,370 ft) of track in HO scale, divided into seven sections: Harz, the fictitious city of Knuffingen, the Alps and Austria, Hamburg, America, Scandinavia, and Switzerland. Of the 6,400 square metres (68,889 sq ft) of floorspace, the model takes 1,150 m2 (12,378 sq ft). By 2020, the exhibit is expected to have reached its final construction phase, including at least a total of ten sections in a model area of over 2,300 m2 (24,757 sq ft). The next section covering an airport opened in May 2011. The exhibit includes 890 trains made up of over 11,000 carriages, 300,000 lights, 215,000 trees, and 200,000 human figurines. The creators will work on models of Italy and France now that the airport section is completed. The airport is named Knuffingen International Airport and is modeled after Hamburg International Airport. Possible future additions include Africa, England, or a futuristic landscape. The construction of the first part started in December 2000 and the first three parts were completed in August 2001. The project was created by two brothers Frederik and Gerrit Braun. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





Rushmore National Memorial, near Keystone, South Dakota, is a monumental granite sculpture by Gutzon Borglum (18671941), located within the United States Presidential Memorial that represents the first 150 years of the history of the United States of America with 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of former United States presidents (left to right): George Washington (17321799), Thomas Jefferson (17431826), Theodore Roosevelt (18581919), and Abraham Lincoln (18091865). The entire memorial covers 1,278.45 acres (5.17 km2) and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level. It is managed by the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The memorial attracts approximately two million people annually. Mount Rushmore is controversial among Native Americans because the United States seized the area from the Lakota tribe after the Great Sioux War of 1876-77. The Treaty of Fort Laramie from 1868 had previously granted the Black Hills to the Lakota in perpetuity. The Lakota consider the hills sacred, although historians believe the Lakota also gained control of the hills by force, displacing the Cheyenne in 1776. Mount Rushmore is largely composed of granite. The memorial is carved on the northwest margin of the Harney Peak granite batholith in the Black Hills of South Dakota, so the geologic formations of the heart of the Black Hills region are also evident at Mount Rushmore. The batholith magma intruded into the pre-existing mica schist rocks during the Precambrian period about 1.6 billion years ago. However, the uneven cooling of the molten rock caused the formation of both fine and coarse-grained minerals, including quartz, feldspar, muscovite, and biotite. Fractures in the granite were sealed by pegmatite dikes. The light-colored streaks in the presidents' foreheads are due to these dikes. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Nu'uanu Pali is a section of the windward cliff of the Ko'olau mountain located at the head of Nu'uanu Valley on the island of O'ahu. It has a panoramic view of the windward coast of O'ahu. The Pali Highway connecting Kailua/Kane'ohe with downtown Honolulu runs through the Nu'uanu Pali Tunnels bored into the cliffside. The area is also the home of the Nu'uanu Freshwater Fish Refuge and the Nu'uanu Reservoir in the jurisdiction of the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources. The Nu'uanu Pali State Wayside is a lookout above the tunnels where visitors are treated to a panoramic view of the O'ahu's windward side with sweeping views of Kane'ohe, Kane'ohe Bay, and Kailua. It is also well-known for strong Trade winds that blow through the pass, forming a sort of natural wind tunnel. The Nu'uanu Pali has been a vital pass from ancient times to the present because it is a low, traversable section of the Ko'olau mountain range that connects the leeward side of the mountains, Honolulu to the windward side, Kailua and Kane'ohe. The route drew settlers who formed villages in the area and populated Nu'uanu Valley for a thousand years. The Nu'uanu Pali was the site of the Battle of Nu'uanu, one of the bloodiest battles in Hawaiian history, in which Kamehameha I conquered the island of O'ahu, bringing it under his rule. In 1795 Kamehameha I sailed from his home island of Hawai'i with an army of 10,000 warriors, including a handful of non-Hawaiian foreigners. After conquering the islands of Maui and Moloka'i, he moved on to O'ahu. The pivotal battle for the island occurred in Nu'uanu Valley, where the defenders of O'ahu, led by Kalanikupule, were driven back up into the valley where they were trapped above the cliff. More than 400 of Kalanikupule's soldiers were driven off the edge of the cliff to their deaths 1,000 feet below. Two large stones near the back of Nu'uanu Valley, Hapu'u and Ka-lae-hau-ola, were said to represent a pair of goddesses who were guardians of the passage down the pali. Travellers would leave offerings of flowers or kapa (bark cloth) to ensure a safe trip, and parents buried the umbilical cords of newborns under the stones as a protection against evil. It is said there is a mo'o wahine (lizard woman) who lingers around the pass. A mo'o wahine is mythical creature who takes the form of a beautiful woman and leads male travelers to their deaths off the cliff. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Chewing gum is a type of gum traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, or synthetic rubber known as polyisobutylene, which is a non-vulcanisable form of the butyl rubber (isoprene-isobutylene) used for inner tubes or to line tubeless tires. For reasons of economy and quality, many modern chewing gums use rubber instead of chicle. Chicle is nonetheless still the base of choice for some regional markets, such as in Japan. Chewing gum in various forms has existed since at least the Neolithic period. 5,000 year old chewing gum with tooth imprints, made of birch bark tar, has been found in Kierikki, Yli-Ii, Finland. The bark tar of which the gums were made is believed to have antiseptic properties and other medicinal advantages. The ancient Aztecs used chicle as a base for making a gum-like substance. Women in particular used this gum as a mouth freshener. Forms of chewing gums were also used in Ancient Greece. The Greeks chewed mastic gum, made from the resin of the mastic tree. Many other cultures have chewed gum-like substances made from plants, grasses, and resins. The American Indians chewed resin made from the sap of spruce trees. The New England settlers picked up this practice, and in the early 1880s attempts were made to commercially market spruce gum. Around 1850 a gum made from paraffin wax was developed and soon exceeded the spruce gum in popularity. The United States military have regularly supplied soldiers with chewing gum since World War I because it helped both to improve the soldiers' concentration and to relieve stress. As of 2005, the U.S. military is sponsoring development of a chewing gum formulation with an antibacterial agent that could replace conventional oral hygiene methods in the battlefield. This product is not expected to be available for use for some time to come. Sugar-free gum sweetened with xylitol has been shown to reduce cavities and plaque by starving microorganisms in the mouth. The same effect has not been shown for the sweetener sorbitol. The addition of calcium lactate has been shown to increase recalcification. Chewing gum sweetened with sugar can have a negative effect on oral health, because it can degrade the enamel on teeth. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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