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The Borei class (or Borei; named after Boreas, the North wind) is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced and operated by Russia. It is intended to replace the Delta III and Typhoon class in the Russian Navy. The Borei is claimed to represent the state of the art in submarine design, incorporating characteristics that make it superior to any submarine currently in service, such as the ability to cruise silently and be less detectable to sonar. Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. Costing some $890 million USD, Borei is approximately 170 metres (560 ft) long, 13 metres (43 ft) in diameter, and has a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour (25 kn; 29 mph). The launch of the first submarine of the class, the Yury Dolgorukiy, was scheduled for 2002 but was delayed because of budget constraints. The vessel was eventually rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 in a ceremony attended by many senior military and industrial personnel. The Yuriy Dolgorukiy was the first strategic missile submarine to be launched in the seventeen years since the end of the Soviet era; in fact, it was the first Russian (rather than Soviet) vessel. Currently, there are two more Borei class submarines under construction, named Alexander Nevsky and Vladimir Monomakh. However, the SS-N-28 missile that the Borei class was supposed to carry was abandoned after several failed tests, and the submarine was redesigned for the Bulava missile. Based on the Russian Topol-M (SS-27) ICBM the Bulava missile is smaller than the original SS-N-28, and in the 2007 START treaty data exchange it was reported that all Borei-class submarines would carry 16 missiles instead of 12, as originally intended. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. Several hundred were fired in combat during the 1980s. In 1982, during the Falklands War, Exocets became noted worldwide when Argentine Navy Exocet-equipped Super Etendard warplanes sank the British Royal Navy destroyer HMS Sheffield on 4 May 1982, and the 15,000 ton merchant ship Atlantic Conveyor, were struck by two Exocet anti-ship missiles, on 25 May. An MM38 ship-to-ship Exocet transferred from the Argentinean Navy destroyer ARA Guerrico to a land-based truck damaged HMS Glamorgan on June 12. Iraq fired an estimated 200 air-launched Exocets against Iranian shipping during the Iran–Iraq War with varying levels of success. Tankers and other civilian shipping were often hit. On May 17, 1987, the pilot of an Iraqi Mirage F-1 allegedly mistook the U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate USS Stark for an Iranian tanker and fired two Exocets at the warship. The first penetrated the port-side hull. The second entered at almost the same point, and left a 3-by-4-metre (9.8 ft × 13 ft) gash then exploded in crew quarters. Thirty-seven sailors were killed and twenty-one were injured. Stark was heavily damaged, but saved by the crew and sent back for repairs. The errant pilot was reportedly executed for his error, and his explanations for the attack are not available. Later, Iraqi officials denied that the pilot had been executed and stated that he was still alive. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



LED-backlit LCD television (called LED TV by Samsung Electronics, Panasonic,Toshiba, Philips, LG Electronics, ProScan and Vizio and not to be confused with true LED displays) is an LCD TV that uses LED backlighting rather than fluorescent lights used in traditional LCD televisions. The LEDs can come in two forms, Dynamic RGB LEDs which are positioned behind the panel, or white Edge-LEDs positioned around the rim of the screen which use a special diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the screen. RGB Dynamic LEDs allow dimming to occur locally creating specific areas of darkness on the screen. This can show truer blacks, whites and PRs at much higher dynamic contrast ratios, at the cost of less detail in small bright objects on a dark background, such as star fields. Edge-LEDs allow for LED-backlit TVs to become extremely thin. The light is diffused across the screen by a special panel which produces a uniform color range across the screen. Sharp also has LED backlighting technology that aligns the LEDs on back of the TV like the RGB Dynamic LED backlight, but it lacks the local dimming of other sets. LED-backlit LCD TVs are considered a more sustainable choice, with a longer life and better energy efficiency than plasmas and conventional LCD TVs. Unlike CCFL backlights, LEDs also use no mercury in their manufacture. However, other elements such as gallium and arsenic are used in the manufacture of the LED emitters themselves, meaning there is some debate over whether they are a significantly better long term solution to the problem of TV disposal. Because LEDs are able to be switched on and off more quickly than CCFL displays and can offer a higher light output, it is theoretically possible to offer very high contrast ratios. They can produce deep blacks (LEDs off) and a high brightness (LEDs on), however care should be taken with measurements made from pure black and pure white outputs, as technologies like Edge-LED lighting do not allow these outputs to be reproduced simultaneously on-screen. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Tapeworm infestation is the infection of the digestive tract by adult parasitic flatworms called cestodes or tapeworms. Live tapeworm larvae (coenuri) are sometimes ingested by consuming undercooked food. Once inside the digestive tract, a larva can grow into a very large adult tapeworm. Additionally, many tapeworm larvae cause symptoms in an intermediate host. For example, cysticercosis is a disease of humans involving larval tapeworms in the human body. Among the most common tapeworms in humans are the pork tapeworm (T. solium), the beef tapeworm (T. saginata), the fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium spp.), and the dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis spp.). Infections involving the pork and beef tapeworms are also called taeniasis. Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus infect and cause the most harm to intermediate hosts such as sheep and cattle. Infection with this type of tapeworm is referred to as Echinococcosis or hydatid disease. Symptoms vary widely, as do treatment options, and these issues are discussed in detail in the individual articles on each worm. With a few notable exceptions like the fish tapeworm, most cestodes that infect humans and livestock are cyclophyllids, and can be identified as such by the presence of four suckers on their scolex or head. Most occurrences are found in areas which lack adequate sanitation and include Southeast Asia, West Africa, and East Africa. Although tapeworms in the intestine usually cause no symptoms, some people experience upper abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Anemia may develop in people with the fish tapeworm. Infection is generally recognized when the infected person passes segments of proglottids in the stool (looks like white worms), especially if a segment is moving. Rarely, worms may cause obstruction of the intestine. And very rarely, T. solium larvae can migrate to the brain causing severe headaches, seizures and other neurological problems. This condition is called neurocysticercosis. It can take years of development before the patient has those symptoms of the brain. Tapeworms are treated with medications taken by mouth, usually in a single dose. The drug of choice for tapeworm infections is niclosamide. Praziquantel and albendazole can also be used. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





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