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Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal illness caused by a bacterial toxin. Different bacterial toxins may cause toxic shock syndrome, depending on the situation. The causative bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome vary depending on the underlying cause. TSS resulting from infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus typically manifests in otherwise healthy individuals with high fever, accompanied by low blood pressure, malaise and confusion, which can rapidly progress to stupor, coma, and multiple organ failure. The characteristic rash, often seen early in the course of illness, resembles a sunburn, and can involve any region of the body, including the lips, mouth, eyes, palms and soles. In patients who survive the initial onslaught of the infection, the rash desquamates, or peels off, after 10–14 days. The severity of this disease frequently warrants hospitalization. Admission to the intensive care unit is often necessary for supportive care (for aggressive fluid management, ventilation, renal replacement therapy and inotropic support), particularly in the case of multiple organ failure. The source of infection should be removed or drained if possible: abscesses and collections should be drained. Women wearing a tampon at the onset of symptoms should remove it immediately. Outcomes are poorer in patients who do not have the source of infection removed. Following a controversial period of test marketing in Rochester, New York and Fort Wayne, Indiana, in August 1978, Procter and Gamble introduced superabsorbent Rely tampons to the United States market in response to women's demands for tampons that could contain an entire menstrual flow without leaking or replacement. Rely used carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and compressed beads of polyester for absorption. This tampon design could absorb nearly 20 times its own weight in fluid. Further, the tampon would "blossom" into a cup shape in the vagina to hold menstrual fluids without leakage. In January 1980, epidemiologists in Wisconsin and Minnesota reported the appearance of TSS, mostly in menstruating women, to the CDC. S. aureus was successfully cultured from most of the women. A CDC task force investigated the epidemic as the number of reported cases rose throughout the summer of 1980, accompanied by widespread publicity. In September 1980, the CDC reported users of Rely were at increased risk for developing TSS. On 22 September 1980, Procter and Gamble recalled Rely following release of the CDC report. As part of the voluntary recall, Procter and Gamble entered into a consent agreement with the FDA "providing for a program for notification to consumers and retrieval of the product from the market." However, it was clear to other investigators that Rely was not the only culprit. Other regions of the United States saw increases in menstrual TSS before Rely was introduced. By the end of 1980, the number of TSS cases reported to the CDC began to decline. The reduced incidence was attributed not only to the removal of Rely from the market, but also to reduced use of all tampon brands. According to the Boston Women's Health Book Collective, 942 women were diagnosed with tampon-related TSS in the US from March 1980 to March 1981, 40 of whom died. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





Rüppell's Vulture (Gyps rueppellii) is a medium-sized vulture that occurs throughout the Sahel region of central Africa. The current population of 30,000 is in decline due to ongoing loss of habitat and other pressures. Since first being assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1998, populations of Rüppell's Vulture have declined. The species has been listed with an IUCN Red List status of "near threatened" since 2007 and the IUCN predicts that populations of the species will continue to decline. Adults are close to 1 metre (3.3 ft) in length, with a wingspan of around 2.6 metres (8.5 ft), and a weight that usually ranges from 7 to 9 kg (15 to 20 lb). Both sexes are alike: mottled brown or black overall with a whitish-brown underbelly and thin, dirty-white fluff covering the head and neck. The base of the neck has a white collar, the eye is yellow or amber, the crop patch deep chocolate-brown. Silent as a rule, they become vocal at the nest and when at a carcass, squealing a great deal. Rüppell's Vultures have several adaptations to their diet and are specialized feeders even among the Old World vultures of Africa. They have an especially powerful bill and, after the most attractive soft parts of a carcass have been consumed, they will continue with the hide, and even the bones, gorging themselves until they can barely fly. They have backward-facing splines on the tongue to help remove meat from bone. Rüppell's Vultures commonly fly at altitudes ranging up to 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The birds have a specialized variant of the hemoglobin alphaD subunit; this protein has a high affinity for oxygen, which allows the species to take up oxygen efficiently despite the low partial pressure in the upper troposphere. A Rüppell's Vulture was confirmed to have been ingested by a jet engine of an airplane flying over Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire on November 29, 1973 at an altitude of 11,000 metres (36,100 ft). In August 2010 a Rüppell's Vulture escaped a bird of prey site in Scotland, prompting warnings to pilots in the area to keep an eye out due to the danger of collision. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



LED-backlit LCD television (called LED TV by Samsung Electronics, Panasonic,Toshiba, Philips, LG Electronics, ProScan and Vizio and not to be confused with true LED displays) is an LCD TV that uses LED backlighting rather than fluorescent lights used in traditional LCD televisions. The LEDs can come in two forms, Dynamic RGB LEDs which are positioned behind the panel, or white Edge-LEDs positioned around the rim of the screen which use a special diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the screen. RGB Dynamic LEDs allow dimming to occur locally creating specific areas of darkness on the screen. This can show truer blacks, whites and PRs at much higher dynamic contrast ratios, at the cost of less detail in small bright objects on a dark background, such as star fields. Edge-LEDs allow for LED-backlit TVs to become extremely thin. The light is diffused across the screen by a special panel which produces a uniform color range across the screen. Sharp also has LED backlighting technology that aligns the LEDs on back of the TV like the RGB Dynamic LED backlight, but it lacks the local dimming of other sets. LED-backlit LCD TVs are considered a more sustainable choice, with a longer life and better energy efficiency than plasmas and conventional LCD TVs. Unlike CCFL backlights, LEDs also use no mercury in their manufacture. However, other elements such as gallium and arsenic are used in the manufacture of the LED emitters themselves, meaning there is some debate over whether they are a significantly better long term solution to the problem of TV disposal. Because LEDs are able to be switched on and off more quickly than CCFL displays and can offer a higher light output, it is theoretically possible to offer very high contrast ratios. They can produce deep blacks (LEDs off) and a high brightness (LEDs on), however care should be taken with measurements made from pure black and pure white outputs, as technologies like Edge-LED lighting do not allow these outputs to be reproduced simultaneously on-screen. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Gimli Glider is the nickname of the Air Canada aircraft that was involved in a notable aviation incident. At 41,000 feet, over Red Lake, Ontario, the aircraft's cockpit warning system sounded, indicating a fuel pressure problem on the aircraft's left side. Assuming that a fuel pump had failed,] the pilots turned it off, as gravity would still feed fuel to the aircraft's two engines. The aircraft's computer indicated that there was still sufficient fuel for the flight, but, as the pilots subsequently realized, the calculation was based on incorrect settings. A few moments later, a second fuel pressure alarm sounded, prompting the pilots to divert to Winnipeg. Within seconds, the left engine failed and they began preparing for a single-engine landing. As they communicated their intentions to controllers in Winnipeg and tried to restart the left engine, the cockpit warning system sounded again, this time with a long "bong" that no one present could recall having heard before. This was the "all engines out" sound, an event that had never been simulated during training. Seconds later, most of the instrument panels in the cockpit went blank as the right-side engine also stopped and the 767 lost all power. The 767 was one of the first airliners to include an Electronic Flight Instrument System, a system that required the electricity generated by the aircraft's jet engines in order to operate. With both engines stopped, the system went dead, leaving only a few basic battery-powered emergency flight instruments. While these provided basic but sufficient information with which to land the aircraft, a vertical speed indicator – that would indicate the rate at which the aircraft was sinking and therefore how far it could glide unpowered – was not among them. Without power, the pilots had to try lowering the aircraft's main landing gear via a gravity drop, but, due to the airflow, the nose wheel failed to lock into position. The decreasing forward motion of the aircraft also reduced the effectiveness of the Ram Air Turbine, making the aircraft increasingly difficult to control because of the reduced power being generated. As the runway drew nearer, it became apparent that the aircraft was too high and fast. They ran the risk of running out of runway before the aircraft stopped. The lack of hydraulic pressure prevented flap/slat extension. These devices are used under normal landing conditions to reduce the speed of the aircraft for a safe landing. They briefly considered executing a 360 degree turn but came to the conclusion they did not have enough altitude for the maneuver. Pearson decided to execute a forward slip to increase drag and lose altitude. This maneuver is commonly used with gliders and light aircraft to descend more quickly. As soon as the wheels touched the runway, Pearson "stood on the brakes", blowing out two of the aircraft's tires. The unlocked nose wheel collapsed and was forced back into its well, causing the aircraft's nose to scrape along the ground. The plane also slammed into the guard rail now separating the strip, which helped slow it down. None of the 61 passengers were seriously hurt during the landing. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





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