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James Riddle Hoffa was an American trade unionist. Hoffa served as the General President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from 19581971, despite being incarcerated during the latter four years of his tenure. Hoffa, who had been convicted of jury tampering and attempted bribery in 1964, was imprisoned in 1967 after exhausting the appeal process. However, he did not officially resign the Teamsters' presidency until 1971. This was part of a pardon agreement with U.S. president Richard Nixon, in order to facilitate Hoffa's release from prison. Hoffa was last seen in 1975 outside a suburban Detroit restaurant called the Machus Red Fox. The Teamsters organized truckers and firefighters first throughout the Midwest, and then nationwide across the United States. The union skillfully used "quickie strikes", secondary boycotts, and other means of leveraging union strength at one company, then moved to organize workers, and then win contract demands at other companies. This process, which took several years from the early 1930s, eventually brought the Teamsters to a position of being one of the most powerful unions in the United States. Hoffa played a major role in the growth of the Teamsters union. Hoffa took over the presidency of the Teamsters in 1957, when his predecessor, Dave Beck, was convicted on bribery charges and imprisoned.[citation needed] Hoffa worked to expand the union, and, in 1964, succeeded in bringing virtually all over-the-road truck drivers in North America under a single national master-freight agreement. Hoffa then tried to bring the airline workers and other transport employees into the union. Hoffa was planning to sue to invalidate that non-participation restriction, in order to reassert his power over the Teamsters when he disappeared at, or sometime after, 2:45 pm on July 30, 1975 from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox Restaurant in Bloomfield Township, Oakland County, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. He had been due to meet two Mafia leaders, Anthony Giacolone from Detroit and Anthony Provenzano from Union City, New Jersey and New York City. Provenzano was also a union leader with the Teamsters in New Jersey, who had earlier been quite close to Hoffa. In 1993, authors William Hoffman and Lake Headley released the book Contract Killer: The Explosive Story of the Mafia's Most Notorious Hitman, written with the cooperation of former mobster Donald Frankos, who was also known as "Tony the Greek." Frankos claimed that, during one of those furloughs, he took part in the murder of Hoffa, as part of a hit team consisting of himself, Irish mobster John Sullivan, and James Coonan, the notorious boss of the Westies. In July 2003, convicted killer Richard Powell told authorities that a briefcase containing a syringe used to subdue Hoffa was buried at a house in Hampton Township, Michigan. The FBI searched the backyard of a home formerly frequented by Frank Sheeran, who was a World War II veteran, Mafia hit man, truck driver, Teamsters official, and close friend of Hoffa's. Nothing significant was found. In Philip Carlo's book The Ice Man, written about (and with the cooperation of) convicted contract killer Richard Kuklinski, Kuklinski claimed that he played a large part in the disappearance of Hoffa. He said that he and three other men met Hoffa for lunch at the Machus Red Fox and, when Hoffa got into their van, Kuklinski knocked him out and then put a knife in his head. On May 17, 2006, acting on a tip, the FBI searched a farm in Milford Township, Michigan, for Hoffa's remains. Nothing was found. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), also known as the silvertip bear or just the grizzly, is a subspecies of brown bear (Ursus arctos) that generally lives in the uplands of western North America. This subspecies is thought to descend from Ussuri brown bears which crossed to Alaska from Eastern Russia 100,000 years ago, though they did not move south until 13,000 years ago. The word "grizzly" in its name refers to "grizzled" or grey hairs in its fur, but when naturalist George Ord formally named the bear in 1815, he misunderstood the word as "grisly", to produce its biological Latin specific or subspecific name "horribilis". The size of a female grizzly is 200-450lbs, males 300-850lbs and the young 500g when born. Grizzly bears have one of the lowest reproductive rates of all terrestrial mammals in North America. This is due to numerous ecological factors. Grizzly bears do not reach sexual maturity until they are at least five years old. Once mated with a male in the summer, the female delays embryo implantation until hibernation, during which miscarriage can occur if the female does not receive the proper nutrients and caloric intake. On average, females produce two cubs in a litter and the mother cares for the cubs for up to two years, during which the mother will not mate. Once the young leave or are killed, females may not produce another litter for three or more years depending on environmental conditions. Male grizzly bears have large territories, up to 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi), making finding a female scent difficult in such low population densities. Although grizzlies are of the order Carnivora and have the digestive system of carnivores, they are actually omnivores, since their diet consists of both plants and animals. They have been known to prey on large mammals, when available, such as moose, deer, sheep, elk, bison, caribou and even black bears. Grizzly bears feed on fish such as salmon, trout, and bass, and those with access to a more protein-enriched diet in coastal areas potentially grow larger than interior individuals. Grizzly bears also readily scavenge food, on carrion left behind by other animals. The grizzly bears that reside in the American Rocky Mountains are not as large as Canadian or Alaskan grizzlies. This is due, in part, to the richness of their diet, which in Yellowstone consists mostly of whitebark pine nuts, as well as roots, tubers, grasses, various rodents, army cutworm moths and scavenged carcasses. None of these, however, match the fat content of the salmon available in Alaska and British Columbia. The grizzly bear is listed as threatened in the contiguous United States and endangered in parts of Canada. In May 2002, the Canadian Species at Risk Act listed the Prairie population (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba range) of grizzly bears as being wiped out in Canada. In Alaska and parts of Canada however, the grizzly is still legally shot for sport by hunters. On January 9, 2006, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to remove Yellowstone grizzlies from the list of threatened and protected species. In March 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service "de-listed" the population, effectively removing Endangered Species Act protections for grizzlies in the Yellowstone National Park area. On September 22, 2009, a federal judge reinstated protection for the bears. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp. The insurgency was launched against the Germans on January 18, 1943. The most significant portion of the rebellion took place from April 19 until May 16, 1943, and ended when the poorly armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the German troops under the direct command of Jurgen Stroop. It was the largest single revolt by the Jews during the Holocaust. Ultimately, the efforts of the Jewish resistance fighters proved insufficient against the German forces. The Germans eventually committed an average daily force of 2,090 well-armed troops, including 821 Waffen-SS Panzergrenadier troops (consisting of five SS reserve and training battalions and one SS cavalry reserve and training battalion), as well as 363 Polish Blue Policemen, who were ordered by the Germans to cordon the walls of the Ghetto. Approximately 13,000 Jews were killed in the ghetto during the uprising (some 6,000 among them were burnt alive or died from smoke inhalation). Of the remaining 50,000 residents, most were captured and shipped to concentration and extermination camps, in particular to Treblinka. A number of survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, known as the "Ghetto Fighters," went on to found Kibbutz Lohamey ha-Geta'ot (literally: "Ghetto Fighters' Kibbutz"), which is located north of Acre. The founding members of the kibbutz include Yitzhak Zuckerman, ZOB deputy commander, and his wife Zivia Lubetkin, who also commanded a fighting unit. In 1984, the members of the kibbutz published Dapei Edut ("Testimonies of Survival"), four volumes of personal testimonies from 96 kibbutz members. The settlement also features a museum and archives dedicated to remembering the Holocaust. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



A sebaceous cyst (a form of trichilemmal cyst) also known as a "wen", is a closed sac or cyst below the surface of the skin that has a lining that resembles the uppermost part (infundibulum) of a hair follicle and fills with a fatty white, semi-solid material called sebum. Sebum is produced by sebaceous glands of the epidermis. The scalp, ears, back, face, and upper arm, are common sites for sebaceous cysts, though they may occur anywhere on the body except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In males a common place for them to develop is the scrotum and chest. They are more common in hairier areas, where in cases of long duration they could result in hair loss on the skin surface immediately above the cyst. They are smooth to the touch, vary in size, and are generally round in shape. They are generally mobile masses that can consist of: Fibrous tissues and fluids; A fatty, (keratinous), substance that resembles cottage cheese, in which case the cyst may be called "keratin cyst" This material has a characteristic "cheesy" or "foot odor" smell; A somewhat viscous, serosanguineous fluid (containing purulent and bloody material). Sebaceous cysts generally do not require medical treatment. However, if they continue to grow, they may become unsightly, painful, infected, or all of the above. Surgical excision of a sebaceous cyst is a simple procedure to completely remove the sac and its contents. There are three general approaches used: traditional wide excision, minimal excision, and punch biopsy excision. Another common and effective method of treatment involves placement of a heating pad directly on the cyst for about fifteen minutes, twice daily, for about 10 days (depending on size and location of the cyst). There is some anecdotal evidence however that this home remedy can lead to infection in a previously uninfected cyst. This may be caused by an over-heated or non-sterile heat pad. This method works by bringing the wax-like material inside of the cyst to a temperature at which it melts, and can be reabsorbed and processed by the body, as a small amount of oily fluid. This method is preferred over surgery both for reasons of associated costs and risks of surgery. This methodology is not applicable for non-sebaceous cysts, however, as other varieties of cysts do not contain the same hardened sebum deposits, and therefore do not melt to be reabsorbed by the body. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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