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Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fat are removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery. Blepharoplasty is often done as an elective surgery for cosmetic reasons. Lower eyelid blepharoplasty is almost always done for cosmetic reasons, to improve puffy lower eyelid "bags" and reduce the wrinkling of skin. Asian blepharoplasty or double eyelid surgery is a special type of blepharoplasty that creates a crease in the upper eyelid. This "supratarsal fold" is common in many races but absent in about half of Asians. Surgery can artificially create this crease and make a 'single-lidded' patient appear 'double-lidded'. It is the most popular form of cosmetic surgery among those of east and southeast Asian background. Blepharoplasty is sometimes needed for functional reasons. When an advanced amount of upper eyelid skin is present, the skin may protrude over the eyelashes and causes a loss of peripheral vision. The outer and upper parts of the visual field are most commonly affected and the condition may cause difficulty with activities such as driving or reading. In this circumstance, upper eyelid blepharoplasty is performed to improve peripheral vision. Blepharoplasty is usually performed through external incisions made along the natural skin lines of the eyelids, such as the creases of the upper lids and below the lashes of the lower lids. Incisions may be made from the inside surface of the lower eyelid (transconjunctival blepharoplasty); this allows removal of lower eyelid fat without an externally-visible scar, but does not allow excess skin to be removed. External skin resurfacing with a chemical peel or carbon dioxide laser may be performed simultaneously. This allows for a faster recovery process. The recovery process after a blepharoplasty may take up to few weeks. Patients will receive instruction for during the home care and most of the time they receive painkillers that ease the pain caused by the incisions. The first two days after the operation has been performed, the patient receives an ointment treatment to keep the incisions lubricated. Doctors recommend keeping iced eye pads on the eyes to reduce bruising and swelling. Eye drops may also be prescribed as they may help in pain management and in preventing infections. Patients are recommended to keep their heads higher than the body while sleeping as this will accelerate the recovery process. The cost is determined in part by a patient's geographical location and the actual surgeon who is performing the surgery but also by the related fees. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in the United States, the national average cost of blepharoplasty surgeon fees in 2007 was $3,134. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



There are a number of environmental issues with petroleum as a result of it being toxic to almost all forms of life. The possibility of climate change exists. Petroleum, commonly referred to as oil, is closely linked to virtually all aspects of present society, especially for transportation and heating for both homes and for commercial activities. Crude oil is a mixture of many different kinds of organic compounds, many of which are highly toxic and cancer causing (carcinogenic). Oil is "acutely lethal" to fish, that is kills fish quickly, at a concentration of 4000 parts per million (ppm) (0.4%). "It only takes one quart of motor oil to make 250,000 gallons of ocean water toxic to wildlife." This would be a concentration of only 1 ppm. Crude oil and petroleum distillates cause birth defects. Benzene is present in both crude oil and gasoline and is known to cause leukemia in humans. The compound is also known to lower the white blood cell count in humans, which would leave people exposed to it more susceptible to infections. "Studies have linked benzene exposure in the mere parts per billion (ppb) range to terminal leukemia, Hodgkins lymphoma, and other blood and immune system diseases within 5-15 years of exposure." [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans. Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus. Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips or genitals. Lesions heal with a scab characteristic of herpetic disease. Sometimes, the viruses cause very mild or atypical symptoms during outbreaks. However, as neurotropic and neuroinvasive viruses, HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body by becoming latent and hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of nerves. After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks. In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the nerve's axon to the skin, where virus replication and shedding occur and cause new sores. HSV-1 and -2 are transmitted from contact with an infectious area of the skin during reactivations of the virus. Although less likely, the herpes viruses can be transmitted during latency. Transmission is likely to occur during symptomatic reactivation of the virus that causes visible and typical skin sores. Asymptomatic reactivation means that the virus causes atypical, subtle or hard to notice symptoms that are not identified as an active herpes infection. Atypical symptoms are often attributed to other causes such as a yeast infection. HSV-1 is usually acquired orally during childhood, but may also be sexually transmitted. HSV-2 is primarily a sexually transmitted infection but rates of HSV-1 genital infections are increasing. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections and the virus cannot currently be eradicated from the body. Treatment usually involves general-purpose antiviral drugs that interfere with viral replication, reducing the physical severity of outbreak-associated lesions and lowering the chance of transmission to others. Studies of vulnerable patient populations have indicated that daily use of antivirals such as acyclovir and valacyclovir can reduce reactivation rates. In vitro research has indicated that Aloe Vera may be effective against genital herpes. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Mk-48 torpedo was designed in the end of the 1960s to keep up with the advances in Soviet submarine technology. Operational since 1972, it replaced the Mk-37 and Mk-14 torpedoes as the principal weapon of U.S. Navy submarines. With the entry into service of the new Soviet Alfa class submarine in 1979, the decision was made to accelerate the ADCAP program, which would bring significant modifications to the torpedo. Tests were run to ensure that the weapon could keep on with the developments and the weapon was modified with improved acoustics and electronics. The new version of the weapon, also known as Mk-48 Mod 4, was extensively tested and production started in 1985, with entry into service in 1988. From then on, various upgrades have been added to the torpedo, of which the current version is the Mk-48 Mod 6, a mod 7 version was test fired in 2008 in the Rim of Pacific Naval exercises. The inventory of the U.S. Navy is 1,046 Mk-48 torpedoes. Mk-48 and Mk-48 ADCAP torpedoes can be guided from a submarine by wires attached to the torpedo. They can also use their own active or passive sensors to execute programmed target searches, acquisition and attack procedures. The torpedoes are designed to detonate under the keel of a surface ship, breaking the ship's back and destroying its structural integrity. In the event of a miss, it can circle back for another attempt. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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