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A hot dog (also known as a frankfurter, frank, wiener, or weenie) is a moist sausage of soft, even texture and flavor, often made from advanced meat recovery or meat slurry. Most types are fully cooked, cured or smoked. It is often placed hot in a special purpose soft, sliced hot dog bun. It may be garnished with mustard, ketchup, onion, mayonnaise, relish, cheese, chili or sauerkraut. The flavor can be similar to a range of meat products from bland bologna to spicy German bockwurst varieties. Hot dogs made from a range of meats are on the market, but Kosher or Halal hot dogs must be made from beef, chicken or turkey. Vegetarian hot dogs made from meat analogue are available. Unlike other sausages which may be sold uncooked, hot dogs are always precooked before packaging. Hot dogs can be eaten without additional cooking, although they are usually warmed before serving. Since even the unopened packaged hot dog can have bacteria it is safer to reheat them (especially important for pregnant women). Claims about the invention of the hot dog are difficult to assess because various stories assert the creation of the sausage, the placing of the sausage on bread or a bun as finger food, the popularization of the existing dish, or the application of the name "hot dog" to a sausage and bun combination. The word frankfurter comes from Frankfurt, Germany, where pork sausages served a bun similar to hot dogs originated. Common hot dog ingredients: meat and fat; flavorings, such as salt, garlic, and paprika; Preservatives (cure) - typically sodium erythorbate and sodium nitrite. In the US, if variety meats, cereal or soy fillers are used, the product name must be changed to "links" or the presence must be declared as a qualifier. Pork and beef are traditional meats. Less expensive hot dogs are primarily chicken or turkey, due to the low cost of mechanically separated poultry. Hot dogs have high sodium, fat and nitrite content, ingredients linked to health problems. Due to changing dietary preferences, manufacturers have turned to turkey, chicken, or vegetarian meat substitutes, and lowered salt content. If a manufacturer produces two types of hot dogs, "wieners" tend to contain pork and are blander, while "franks" tend to be all beef and more strongly seasoned. An American Institute for Cancer Research report found that consuming one 50-gram serving of processed meat — about one hot dog — every day increases risk of colorectal cancer by 20 percent. The Cancer Project group filed a class-action lawsuit demanding warning labels on packages and at sporting events. Hot dogs are high in fat and salt and have preservatives sodium nitrate and nitrite, believed to cause cancer. According to the AICR, the average risk of colorectal cancer is 5.8 percent, but 7 percent when a hot dog is consumed daily over years. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



There are a number of environmental issues with petroleum as a result of it being toxic to almost all forms of life. The possibility of climate change exists. Petroleum, commonly referred to as oil, is closely linked to virtually all aspects of present society, especially for transportation and heating for both homes and for commercial activities. Crude oil is a mixture of many different kinds of organic compounds, many of which are highly toxic and cancer causing (carcinogenic). Oil is "acutely lethal" to fish, that is kills fish quickly, at a concentration of 4000 parts per million (ppm) (0.4%). "It only takes one quart of motor oil to make 250,000 gallons of ocean water toxic to wildlife." This would be a concentration of only 1 ppm. Crude oil and petroleum distillates cause birth defects. Benzene is present in both crude oil and gasoline and is known to cause leukemia in humans. The compound is also known to lower the white blood cell count in humans, which would leave people exposed to it more susceptible to infections. "Studies have linked benzene exposure in the mere parts per billion (ppb) range to terminal leukemia, Hodgkins lymphoma, and other blood and immune system diseases within 5-15 years of exposure." [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Parkour, also parcours, or l'art du déplacement (English: the art of moving) is the physical discipline of training to overcome any obstacle within one's path by adapting one's movements to the environment. It is a non-competitive, physical discipline of French origin in which participants run along a route, attempting to negotiate obstacles in the most efficient way possible. Skills such as jumping and climbing, or the more specific parkour moves are employed. The object of parkour is to get from one place to another using only the human body and the objects in the environment. The obstacles can be anything in one's environment, but parkour is often seen practiced in urban areas because of the many suitable public structures available such as buildings and rails. The term freerunning is sometimes used interchangeably with parkour. While superficially similar, freerunning places more emphasis on the aesthetics of movement and finding creative ways to overcome obstacles than on efficiency and simplicity. However, there is some controversy over the exact definitions of the two terms. A practitioner of parkour is called a traceur if male, or traceuse if female. There are fewer predefined movements in parkour than in gymnastics, as there is no list of "moves". Each obstacle a traceur faces presents a unique challenge. The ability to overcome the challenge depends on multiple factors, for example, on body type, speed, angle of approach, the physical make-up of the obstacle. Parkour is about training the "bodymind" to react to those obstacles appropriately with a technique that is effective. Often that technique cannot and need not be classified and given a name. In many cases effective parkour techniques depend on fast redistribution of body weight and the use of momentum to perform seemingly difficult or impossible body maneuvers at great speed. Absorption and redistribution of energy is also an important factor, such as body rolls when landing which reduce impact forces on the legs and spine, allowing a traceur to jump from greater heights than those often considered sensible in other forms of acrobatics and gymnastics. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases. Neon lights are a type of cold cathode gas-discharge light. A neon tube light is a sealed glass tube with a metal electrode at each end, filled with one of a number of gases at low pressure. A high potential of several thousand volts applied to the electrodes ionizes the gas in the tube, causing it to emit colored light by fluorescence. The color of the light depends on the gas in the tube. Neon lights were named for neon, a noble gas which gives off a popular red light, but other gases and chemicals are used to produce other colors, such as helium (yellow), carbon dioxide (white), and mercury (blue). Neon tubes can be fabricated in curving artistic shapes, to form letters or pictures. They are mainly used to make dramatic, multicolored glowing signage for advertising, called neon signs, which were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s. The term can also refer to the miniature neon glow lamp, developed in 1917, about seven years after neon tube lighting. While neon tube lights are typically meters long, the neon lamps can be less than one centimeter in length and glow much more dimly than the tube lights. Through the 1970s, neon glow lamps were widely used for displays in electronics, for small decorative lamps, and as electronic devices in themselves. While these lamps are now antiques, the technology of the neon glow lamp developed into contemporary plasma displays and televisions. Several museums in the United States are now devoted to neon lighting and art, including the Museum of Neon Art (founded by neon artist Lili Lakich, Los Angeles, 1981), the Neon Museum (Las Vegas, founded 1996), the American Sign Museum (Cincinnati, founded 1999), and the Neon Museum of Philadelphia (founded by Len Davidson, Philadelphia, 1985). These museums restore and display historical signage that was originally designed as advertising, in addition to presenting exhibits of neon art. Several books of photographs have also been published to draw attention to neon lighting as art. In 1994, Christian Schiess has published an anthology of photographs and interviews devoted to fifteen "light artists". [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





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