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Chess boxing is a hybrid sport which combines the sport of boxing with games of chess in alternating rounds. Chess boxing fights have been organized since early 2003. The sport was started when Dutch artist Iepe Rubingh, inspired by fictional descriptions of the sport in the writing of Enki Bilal, organized actual matches. The sport has become increasingly popular since then. To succeed players must be both skilled chess players and skilled boxers. A match between two opponents consists of up to eleven alternating rounds of boxing and chess sessions, starting with a four-minute chess round followed by three minutes of boxing and so on. Between rounds there is a one minute pause, during which competitors change their gear. The form of chess played is speed chess in which each competitor has a total of twelve minutes for the whole game. Competitors may win by knockout, checkmate, a judge's decision or if their opponent's twelve minutes of chess time elapses. If a contestant does not make a move in the chessround, he will be issued a warning by the referee and he must then make a move within the next 10 seconds. Warnings may eventually result in disqualification. The concept was envisioned in 1992 by cartoonist Enki Bilal, and a match of chess boxing was a major plot point of his graphic novel Froid Équateur. Iepe Rubingh, a Dutch artist, was inspired by Bilal's book and brought the concept to life in the spring of 2001, fighting under the name, 'Iepe the Joker'. Rubingh decided that the method of play described in the book, a boxing match followed by a chess match, was impractical. Rubingh instead instituted alternating rounds of chess and boxing. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The .30-06 Springfield cartridge or 7.62 x 63 mm in metric notation, was introduced to the United States Army in 1906 and standardized, used until the 1960s and early 1970s. It replaced the .30-03, 6 mm Lee Navy, and .30 US Army. In military service, the 30-06 was used in the bolt-action M1903 Springfield rifle, the bolt-action M1917 Enfield rifle, the semi-automatic M1 Garand, the Famage Mauser, the Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR), and numerous machine guns, including the M1919 series. It served the United States in both World Wars and in the Korean War, its last major use being in Vietnam. Large volumes of surplus brass made it the basis for dozens of commercial and wildcat cartridges, as well as being extensively used for reloading. In 1908 the Model 1895 Winchester lever action rifle became the first commercially produced sporting rifle chambered in 30-06. The .30-06 remained the US Army's primary rifle cartridge for nearly 50 years before it was finally replaced by the 7.62 x 51 mm NATO (commercial .308 Winchester) and 5.56x45mm NATO (commercial .223 Remington), both of which remain in current U.S. and NATO service. Current .30-06 factory ammunition varies in bullet weight from 7.1 g to 14.3 g (110 to 220 grains) in solid bullets, and as low as 3.6 g (55 grains) with the use of a sub-caliber bullet in a sabot. Loads are available with reduced velocity and pressure as well as increased velocity and pressure for stronger firearms. The .30-06 remains one of the most popular sporting cartridges in the world. Many hunting loads have over 3,000 ft-lbs of energy at the muzzle and use expanding bullets that can deliver rapid energy transfer to living targets. It remains a very popular sporting round, with ammunition produced by all major manufacturers. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Brassiere measurements (also called brassiere sizes, colloquially bra sizes or bust sizes) are labeled differently depending on the system of standards set in various countries and vary from one manufacturer to another. They usually consist of a number, indicating a band size, and one or more alphabetical letters indicating the breast cup size. These sizing systems are typically used to label off-the-shelf bras and are not used for custom-made bras or bras built into other garments. Finding the correct bra size can be difficult because manufacturers do not make bras according to a uniform standard. Some manufacturers have been found to deliberately mis-state the band size. Bra-fitting advice also varies considerably, and uniformly require the woman seeking to find a correctly fitting bra to already own one. Furthermore, the shape, size, symmetry, and spacing of women's breasts vary considerably, affecting the bra and cup size. Breasts that have been augmented and sagging breasts are shaped differently and require different kinds of bras. Even breathing can substantially alter the measurements. Obtaining the correct size is further complicated by the fact that the size and shape of a woman's breasts fluctuate during her menstrual cycle, and also with weight gain or loss. One study found that the label size was consistently different from the measured size. Symptoms of a poorly-fitting bra include straps digging into the woman's shoulder or the band digging into her torso, red marks left by bra straps or the band, pain in the shoulders or neck, the band sliding up the torso or riding up in back, the breasts overflowing the bottom of the bra or over the top edge of the bra, loose fabric in the bra cup, underwires poking the breast, or the bra's center panel does not lie flat against the woman's sternum. Key signs of correctly fitting bra include the bra band fits firmly but comfortably on the loosest hook when new. With wear the band slowly stretches and the wearer may need to use a tighter hook. The band around the chest should be horizontal all the way round the torso. The underwire should follow the shape of the breast without digging into the skin. The centre wires, if any, between the cups should rest flat against the wearer's skin and not poke out. The woman's breasts should fit comfortably into the cup and not spill over the top or out the sides. The cup should not be wrinkled and lay flat against the woman's breasts. The bra straps should fit snugly over the woman's shoulder without digging in or leaving red marks. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Titan II was an Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile. Titan II was originally used as an ICBM. It was later used as a medium-lift space launch vehicle to carry payloads for the Air Force, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These payloads include the USAF Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), the NOAA weather satellites, and NASA's Gemini manned space capsules. The modified Titan II SLVs were launched from Vandenberg AFB, California up until 2003. The Titan II ICBM was the successor to the Titan I, and carried a payload twice as heavy. It also used storable propellants, which reduced the time to launch and permitted it to be launched from its silo. Titan II carried the largest single warhead of any American ICBM. The missile consists of a two-stage, rocket engine powered vehicle and a Re-entry vehicle (RV). Provisions are included for in-flight separation of Stage II from Stage I, and separation of the RV from Stage II. Stage I and Stage II vehicles each contain propellant and pressurization, rocket engine, hydraulic and electrical systems, and explosive components. In addition, Stage II contains the flight control system and missile guidance set. The Titan II also used storable propellants, Aerozine 50 and dinitrogen tetroxide. The Titan I, whose liquid oxygen oxidizer must be loaded immediately before launching, had to be raised from its silo and fueled before launch. The use of storable propellants enabled the Titan II to be launched within 60 seconds directly from within its silo. Their hypergolic nature made them dangerous to handle; a leak could lead to explosions, and the fuel was highly toxic. It is a common misconception that the Titan IIs were decommissioned because of a weapons reduction treaty, but in fact were simply aging victims of a weapons modernization program. Because of the volatility of the liquid fuel, and the problem with aging seals, the Titan II missiles had been scheduled to be retired beginning in 1971. After two accidents, deactivation of the Titan II ICBM system finally began in July 1982. The last Titan II missile, located at Silo 373-8 near Judsonia, Arkansas, was deactivated on May 5, 1987. The deactivated missiles are now in storage at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona. A single Titan II complex escaped destruction after decommissioning and and is open to the public as the Titan Missile Museum at Sahuarita, Arizona. The missile resting in the silo is a real Titan II, but was a training missile and never contained fuel, oxidizer or a warhead. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





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