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Power Balance Pavilion (originally ARCO Arena) is an indoor arena, located in the Natomas area of Sacramento, California. It is the home of the NBA's Sacramento Kings. Power Balance Pavilion hosts nearly 200 spectator events each year. The current configuration seats up to 17,317 and can host such varied events as concerts, ice shows, rodeos and monster truck rallies. Nearly two million spectators from throughout Northern California visited what was then called ARCO Arena last year. Owned and operated by Maloof Sports & Entertainment, Power Balance Pavilion is the home of the NBA's Sacramento Kings. Power Balance Pavilion has played host to the Ultimate Fighting Championship 65 and 73, NCAA Men's Basketball Tournaments multiple times and was the host site for the 2007 NCAA Volleyball Championships. Power Balance Pavilion is located in a once isolated area on the expanding northern outskirts of the city. It was constructed at a cost of just $40 million, the lowest of any venue in the NBA. It is the smallest arena in the NBA with a seating capacity of 17,317. In 2006, there was a campaign to build a new $600 million facility in downtown Sacramento, which was to be funded by a quarter cent sales tax increase over 15 years; voters overwhelmingly rejected ballot measures Q and R, leading to the NBA publicly calling for a new arena to be built at another well-known Sacramento facility, Cal Expo, the site of California's state fair. The naming rights for the arena, ARCO, expired in February 2011. The arena was renamed Power Balance Pavilion on March 1, 2011 for its new sponsor, Power Balance, a manufacturer of sports wristbands. he arena seats 17,317 for basketball, and has 30 luxury suites and 412 club seats. The configuration for ice shows and ice hockey actually runs perpendicular to the basketball court with the normal sideline seating being retractable to allow for an international standard ice rink. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Antipredator adaptations are evolutionary adaptations developed over time, which assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against their predators. There are several ways antipredator adaptations can be classified, such as behavioral or non-behavioral or by taxonomic groups. The act of a predator acquiring a food source can be divided into four stages: detection, attack, capture and consumption. At each stage adaptations that maximize the prey organism's chance of survival have evolved, which in turn drives responding adaptation in their predators. This interaction over long periods of time is known as co-evolution. For a predator to locate a potential meal, it must first identify an organism as prey. Prey, however, have many adaptive characteristics which make such a task difficult. Crypsis is the ability of prey to evade detection by predators (or vice versa). Camouflage is one heavily utilised method, and can be either inactive pigmentation, or as with many marine species, active redistribution of pigment in the skin. Some animals provide structures on their bodies for algae to grow, and thus camouflage the host. Some unpalatable animals make use of bright warning colouration, so as to advertise their poisonousness. Batesian mimicry is the imitation by a harmless species of the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator. Polymorphism is a strategy adopted by an organism (mostly insects) to reduce predation. Experiments have shown that polymorphic prey suffered less predation than single-morph species at a particular density, and, conversely, polymorphic prey could maintain higher population densities for a given rate of predation. Animals adapt their waking patterns to avoid predators. Generally, animals are either diurnal, active during the day, nocturnal, active during the night, or crepuscular, active during twilight, depending of food availability, and predator prevalence. Some animals, particularly gazelles, are known to stot, which, among other things, may advertise their unprofitability to predators. Many animals have highly developed senses of sight, smell, and hearing so that they can detect danger and escape. By frequently scanning and monitoring their surroundings, especially when in the open, prey can avoid attack by hoping to see a predator before it reaches the critical distance for an attack. This is a standard defence mechanism for animals in open grasslands and prairies. It is also common for arboreal animals to scan both the ground around them for terrestrial predators, and the sky for aerial predators. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Pruno, or prison wine, is an alcoholic liquid variously made from apples, oranges, fruit cocktail, ketchup, sugar, and possibly other ingredients, including bread. Pruno originated in (and remains largely confined to) prisons, where it can be produced cheaply, easily, and discreetly. The concoction can be made using only a plastic bag, hot running water, and a towel or sock to conceal the pulp during fermentation. The end result has been colorfully described as a "vomit-flavored wine-cooler", although flavor is not the primary objective. Depending on the time spent fermenting, the sugar content, and the quality of the ingredients and preparation, pruno's alcohol content by volume can range from as low as 2% (equivalent to a very weak beer) to as high as 14% (equivalent to a strong wine). Typically, the fermenting mass of fruit called the motor in prison parlance (from "promoter") - is retained from batch to batch to make the fermentation start faster. The more sugar that is added, the greater the potential for a higher alcohol content to a point. Beyond this point, the waste products of fermentation cause the motor to die when the yeasts outgrow their food supply. This also causes the taste of the end product to suffer. Ascorbic acid or Vitamin C powder is sometimes used to stop the fermentation at a certain point, which, combined with the tartness of the added acid, somewhat enhances the taste by reducing the cloyingly sweet flavour associated with pruno. Inmates are not permitted to have alcoholic beverages, and prison authorities confiscate pruno whenever they find it. In an effort to eradicate pruno, some wardens have gone as far as banning all fresh fruit from prison cafeterias. But even this is not always enough; there are pruno varieties made almost entirely from sauerkraut and orange juice. A variety of other prison-made alcoholic potables are known to exist. These include crude wines, famously fermented in toilet tanks. Sugary beverages like orange drink may also be fermented and distilled using a radiator or other available heat source. Though popularized in prison fiction, these techniques are slow and laborious, and generally result in a low alcohol content. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





The X-18 was an experimental cargo transport aircraft designed to be the first testbed for tiltwing and VSTOL (vertical/short takeoff and landing) technology. Design work started in 1955 by Stanley Hiller Jr and Hiller Aircraft Corporation received a manufacturing contract and funding from the U.S. Air Force to build the only X-18 ever produced. To speed up construction and conserve money the plane was constructed from scavenged parts including a Chase C-122 Avitruc fuselage and the turboprops came from the Lockheed XFV-1 and Convair XFY-1 Pogo experimental airplanes program. The tri-bladed contra-rotating propellers were a giant 16 ft (4.8 m) across. The Westinghouse turbojet engine had its exhaust diverted upwards and downwards at the tail to give the plane pitch control at low speeds. The first test flight was on November 24, 1959, ultimately recording 20 flights out of Edwards AFB. A number of problems plagued the X-18 including being susceptible to wind gusts when the wing rotated, acting like a sail. In addition the turboprop engines were not cross-linked, so the failure of one engine meant the airplane would crash. Thrust control was through throttle changes, which were too slow for acceptable height and roll control. On the 20th and final flight in July 1961, the X-18 had a propeller pitch control problem when attempting to convert to a hover at 10,000 ft and went into a spin. The crew regained control and landed, but the X-18 never flew again. However ground testing of the tiltwing concepts continued. Eventually a VTOL Test Stand was built on which the X-18's vertical takeoff and landing and hover control was to be tested. One engine run was successfully conducted to the full 15-foot wheel height on the VTOL Test Stand. The program was cancelled on January 18, 1964 before further VTOL Test Stand testing could be conducted, and the X-18 was cut up for scrap. The program proved several things that contributed to further tilt-wing VSTOL technology programs: (1) cross-shafting between the engines was mandatory in order to avoid loss of control in the event of an engine failure; and (2) direct propeller pitch control was mandatory for precise height and lateral control during VTOL and hover. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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