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Judge Judy is an American court show featuring former family court judge Judith Sheindlin arbitrating over small claims cases. The series is in first-run syndication and distributed by CBS Television Distribution, the successor company to its previous distributors Worldvision Enterprises, Paramount Domestic Television, and CBS Paramount Domestic Television. Since premiering on September 16, 1996, the show has been the ratings leader in courtroom-themed reality-based shows. As of 2010, the Judge Judy program has been nominated 13 times for Daytime Emmy Awards. In January 2008, Judge Judy was extended through the 2012-13 season (the show's 17th). It was announced on May 2, 2011 that once again the show has been extended with Judy renewing her contract until 2015 which will be the show's 19th Season. The program earned Sheindlin a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, which she was awarded in February 2006. Two DVDs have been released; the first in 2007 and the second the following year. The show's creation stemmed from Judith Sheindlin's reputation as one of the most outspoken family court judges in the country, becoming the topic of a Los Angeles Times article in February 1993. The piece caught the attention of 60 Minutes, leading to a segment about Sheindlin on the show, which brought her national recognition. This led to her being approached by television producers, who asked her to "preside" over her own courtroom reality show. The title of her show was originally going to be "Hot Bench" or "Her Honor". Unhappy with that title, however, Sheindlin convinced her television producer, Big Ticket, to change it. Although Judge Judy is the title of the show, it has also become a nickname for Judith Sheindlin. While the cases on Judge Judy are actual small claims court cases, it is not a public court of law (like all court TV shows) but rather a private arbitration court, and all parties must sign contracts agreeing to arbitration under Sheindlin. Even this status has been disputed: in Doo Wop Shoppe Ltd. v. Ralph Edwards, syndi-court justice was determined not to be an actual form of arbitration because a third party pays part of the cost of the judgment. This decision was subsequently overturned. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber that was flown by the United States Military in World War II and the Korean War, and by other nations afterwards. The name "Superfortress" was derived from that of its well-known predecessor, the B-17 Flying Fortress, and carried on a series of names for Boeing-built bombers followed by the B-52 Stratofortress. The B-29 was one of the largest airplanes to see service during World War II. A very advanced bomber for this time period, it included features such as a pressurized cabin, an electronic fire control system, and remote controlled machine-gun turrets. Though it was designed as a high-altitude daytime bomber, in practice it actually flew more low-altitude nighttime incendiary bombing missions. It was the primary aircraft in the American firebombing campaign against the Empire of Japan in the final months of World War II, and carried the atomic bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On three occasions during 1944, individual B-29s made emergency landings in Soviet territory after bombing raids on Japanese Manchuria and Japan. In accordance with Soviet neutrality in the Pacific War, the bombers were interned and kept by the Soviets, despite American requests for their return. The Tupolev OKB dismantled and studied them, and Stalin ordered Tupolev and his design bureau to copy the B-29s down to their smallest details, and produce a design ready for quantity production as soon as possible. In 1947, the Soviets debuted both the Tupolev Tu-4 "Bull" copy of the B-29, and the Tupolev Tu-70 transport variant. Similar tail-gunner positions to the B-29 would be incorporated in many later bombers and transports. Unlike many other bombers, the B-29 remained in service long after the war ended, with a few even being employed as flying television transmitters for the Stratovision company. The type was finally retired in the early 1960s, with 3,960 aircraft in all built. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Devils Island is one of the twenty-two Apostle Islands of northern Wisconsin, and has also been known as Louisiana Island, Barney and Lamborn's Island, Brownstone Island, and Rabbit Island. The island is located in western Lake Superior off the Bayfield Peninsula, and has a maximum elevation of 652' above sea level. The island rises only 50' above Lake Superior's official elevation of 602'. The island has no human inhabitants other than summer Park Service volunteers. It is managed by the National Park Service as part of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. The politician and author Samuel Fifield wrote in 1899 that, "The Indians in the early days declared it to be the home of Matchimanitou, the "evil spirit," whom Kitchie-Manitouo, the "great spirit," had imprisoned there. Hence its name, Devils Island." Governor Fifield did not specify his source of information for this claim, and some modern Native scholars question the accuracy of this explanation. When surf on the lake is heavy, the waves thunder and boom in the island's extensive sea caves. The rumbling can be heard even well away from the shoreline. Local residents claim that the Ojibwe (Chippewa) interpreted this noise as the sound of evil spirits. The island is perhaps most visited for the dramatic rock formations and sea caves that wrap around its northern shore. It is popular with kayakers who enjoy meandering in and out of the caves on calm days. The caves were sculpted from the billion year old sandstone bedrock exposed through the island's surface. The red and gold sandstone was deposited over the area by wandering streams from western hills. The undulating of the climate over about a million year period laid a sandstone crust that is about 1800 feet thick. They are colorfully stratified. Similar to ripples on the sandy bottom of a lake or stream caused by wind, waves or current, the ripples on these rocks are from gentle waves that passed 1 billion years ago. The north tip of Devils Island is the northern most tip of Wisconsin. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



Back to the Future: The Ride is a simulator ride based on the Back to the Future trilogy and is a mini-sequel to 1990's Back to the Future Part III. In the United States, it was replaced by The Simpsons Ride. It is located at Universal Studios Japan, and formerly at Universal Studios Florida and Universal Studios Hollywood. The ride story centers on a first-person adventure through time, in pursuit of the trilogy's villain, Biff Tannen. Executive producer of the original film series, Steven Spielberg served as creative consultant for the ride. This is the only project in the Back to the Future franchise to star Christopher Lloyd's character, Dr. Emmett L. Brown as the main protagonist (the same role held by Michael J. Fox's character, Marty McFly in all of the three films). Following the events of Back to the Future Part III, Doc Brown and his family Clara, Jules, Verne and Einstein have moved from the Old West to the present time in Hill Valley where, in 1991, Brown founds the Institute of Future Technology, a scientific Institute specializing in his "futuristic" inventions. On May 2, 1991 (the opening of the Florida attraction) Brown invites tourists into the Institute as "volunteers" in order to test out his newest invention; the eight-passenger DeLorean time machine by traveling one day into the future. Meanwhile, Doc Brown travels to 2015 in order to make sure the space time continuum is back to normal after the events of his previous time traveling adventures, while his other Institute scientists travel to 1885 and to 1955. However, in 1955, Biff Tannen stows away on the IFT scientists time machine, hitching a ride back to the present day Institute, which sets up the ride's main storyline. The idea of a Back to the Future based simulator ride was first discussed in a 1986 meeting meeting between Steven Spielberg and Totally Fun Company president Peter N. Alexander on the Universal Studios Hollywood backlot on the eve of the debut of the King Kong Encounter scene for the park's Studio Tour. Spielberg recalled how his friend George Lucas had just taken him for a ride on Lucas' Star Tours ride at Disneyland, telling Spielberg that "Universal could never create rides as good as Disney can". Spielberg requested that Alexander see what he can do with a simulator ride concept of Back to the Future. At the time, the proposed concept of the Universal Studios Florida project was put on hold and considered to be dead, and, according to Alexander, Spielberg's suggestion helped to bring the project back to life. The buildings for Florida and California had completely different layouts. In Florida the two arenas were back to back. Designers found that this led to some operational problems so the California building was designed so that the arenas were on opposite ends of the building with the queue and pre-show in between them. The California building was also built upon huge rollers as opposed to being anchored into the ground as a precaution for earthquakes. The Hollywood ride publicly closed on Labor Day, September 3, 2007. In commemoration of its final month of operation, a special event was held with Christopher Lloyd and Bob Gale beginning the countdown to the ride's closure in early August 2007. Additionally, a contest was announced with the grand prize winner receiving a classic 1981 De Lorean DMC-12 vehicle. The ride at Universal Studios Japan is still open, with no plans for closure at this time. Back to the Future: The Ride became a staple attraction, let alone one of the most popular and favorite attractions in the park's history. A new attraction based on the animated sitcom The Simpsons, known officially as The Simpsons Ride, replaced the BTTF ride at Universal Studios Florida on May 15, 2008 and at Universal Studios Hollywood on May 19, 2008. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





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