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The Audi R18 TDI is a Le Mans Prototype (LMP) racing car constructed by the German car manufacturer Audi AG. It is the successor to the Audi R15 TDI. Like its predecessor, the R18 uses a TDI turbocharged diesel engine but with a reduced capacity of 3.7 litres and in a V6 configuration. For the first time since the 1999 R8C, Audi has chosen a closed cockpit design for their Le Mans prototype. As per the new rules the car features a stabilisation fin on the engine cover and also has a new 6-speed gearbox. The new gearbox is electrically controlled instead of pneumatically controlled, saving weight by eliminating the pneumatic system. Despite the capacity reduction, the 3.7L V6 is claimed to develop more than 397 kilowatts (532 bhp) of power. This is less than the outgoing R15, but the V6 engine's fuel consumption will more than likely be lower than that of the outgoing V10 engine on the R15. The new engine has a single Garrett TR30R VGT turbocharger, as opposed to the twin TR30R configuration of both the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP and the previous Audi R15 TDI. The R18's V6 engine exhausts inwards between the cylinder banks, where the turbocharger is placed. This is called a 'hot side inside' configuration and is opposed to the traditional configuration with each cylinder bank of a V engine exhausting outwards to their respective turbochargers. The Audi R18 is the first ever LMP car to race with full LED headlights, this case being the shape of number 1. Unlike other coupé competitors in its class, the chassis on the R18 is not composed of two halves but rather a single-piece construction for improved rigidity. The R18 has an engine cooling duct above the cockpit roof as well as redesigned rear wheel arches to channel more air to the rear wing. Like the Acura ARX-02a, Audi has chosen to install bigger and wider tyres at the front for increased contact patch. Further changes include a lower rear wing, aluminium splitters and a small duct on the front of the car for improved driver comfort within the cockpit. The 2011 ACO regulations have limited the R18's fuel tank to 65 litres. The rule changes have been tabled over the past few years in an aim to introduce greater efficiency into motorsport. In the 2011 Le Mans 24-hour race, Allan McNish and Mike Rockenfellers' cars were involved in heavy high speed collisions with slower cars. Both drivers could leave their car without serious injuries. However the remaining Audi R18 went on to win the 2011 24 Hours of Le Mans by 13 seconds, continuing the domination of recent Le Mans by Audi. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





The Gama Goat was a six-wheel-drive semi-amphibious off-road vehicle originally developed for use by the US Military for the war in Vietnam. It was famous for an articulated body, which allowed it to travel over exceptionally rough terrain and for a unique four-wheel steering arrangement with the front and rear wheels turning in opposite directions. The vehicle's nickname came from two sources; "Gama" from the name of the inventor of its powered articulated joint, Roger Gamount, and "Goat" for its mountain goat-like off-road ability. Its military designation was M561, 6×6 tactical 1½-ton truck. There was also an ambulance version known as the M792 that could carry four litters. Overall, some 15,274 Gama Goats were built at a cost of US$8,000 each; this was considered quite high at the time. While the Gama Goat had exceptional off-road ability, its quirky steering made it hard to handle on pavement, and its tendency to founder in amphibious operations required drivers to have special training in order to operate it. This meant it could not be the "general purpose" vehicle the Army had hoped for, and production was halted after the original contract expired. This is somewhat ironic, as some[who?] claim the problems were largely due to cost-cutting modifications made at the request of the U.S. Army. The air-cooled engine overheated and high pitched noise issues resulted in a warning to all operators that hearing protection was required while driving the vehicle. The double hull construction and complex articulated drive train made maintenance difficult. While technically listed as amphibious, the swimming capability was limited to smooth water crossings of ponds, canals and streams due to the very low freeboard and the lack of a propeller. Propulsion in the water was supplied by the six spinning wheels, and bilge pumps were standard equipment. Drivers had to remember to close the hull's drain openings before swimming the vehicles. Some models had extra equipment installed which made them non-swimmable, such as heavy-duty winches, communications shelters making them top heavy or radar gear. The 'Goat is prized among military vehicle collectors because it is so unusual and in short supply. The vehicle was replaced by the CUCV and HMMWV. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





Nasal irrigation or nasal lavage is the personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to flush out excess mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses. It has been practised in India for centuries as one of the disciplines of yoga. Some clinical tests have shown that this practice is safe and beneficial with no significant side effects. A simple yet effective technique is to pour salt water solution into one nostril and let it run out through the other while the mouth is kept open to breathe, using gravity as an aid. This is an old Ayurvedic technique known as jala neti, and the container used to administer the saline is called a neti pot. (Neti is Sanskrit for "nasal cleansing". Nasal irrigation in a wider sense can also refer to the use of saline nasal spray or nebulizers to moisten the mucus membranes. he saline solution irrigation promotes good nasal health, and patients with chronic sinusitis including symptoms of facial pain, headache, halitosis, cough, anterior rhinorrhea (watery discharge) and nasal congestion often find nasal irrigation to be provide effective relief. In published studies, “daily hypertonic saline nasal irrigation improves sinus-related quality of life, decreases symptoms, and decreases medication use in patients with frequent sinusitis, and irrigation is recommended as an “effective adjunctive treatment of chronic sinonasal symptoms. The simplest technique is to snort water from cupped hands. Spraying the solution into the nostrils is more convenient, but also less effective. The most effective methods ensure that the liquid enters through one nostril and then either runs out of the other nostril or goes through the nasal cavity to the back of the throat from where it may be spat out. The necessary pressure comes from gravity, from squeezing a plastic bottle or a syringe, or from an electrical pump. Warm salt water solution is commonly used, often with sodium bicarbonate as a buffering agent. Optional additives include xylitol which is claimed to draw water into the sinus regions and helps displace bacteria. The use of xylitol in products such as chewing gum is there to reduce bacterias' ability to cling to surfaces, this is a supposed benefit in its use in nasal irrigation [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]





Kirov, the lead ship of her class of missile cruisers, is one of the major and biggest surface warships of the Russian Navy, though it was originally built for the Soviet Navy. It is one of the biggest warships of the world and is similar in size to a World War I battleship. Although commissioned as a missile cruiser Kirov's size and weapons complement have given her the unofficial designation of a battlecruiser throughout much of the world. The appearance of the Kirov class was a significant factor in the U.S. Navy recommissioning the Iowa class. She was named after Sergey Kirov, a Bolshevik hero. Kirov suffered a reactor accident in 1990 while serving in the Mediterranean Sea. Repairs were never carried out, due to lack of funds and the changing political situation in the Soviet Union. She may have been cannibalized as a spare parts cache for the other ships in her class. Admiral Ushakov at Severomorsk in 1992.In June 2004 the name Admiral Ushakov was transferred to the Sovremenny class destroyer Besstrashny. In September 2004 it was revealed that the Severodvinsk-based Design Bureau Onega had been tasked with developing the dismantlement project for the cruiser, currently moored at the Severdovinsk Zvezdochka plant. According to the Zvezdochka plant, dismantlement of the former Admiral Ushakov would cost $40 million, all of which was allocated by Norway. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]



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