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Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a controversial forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Clearcutting, along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that require an abundance of sunlight or grow in large, even-age stands. Logging companies and forest-worker unions in some countries support the practice for scientific, safety, and economic reasons. Detractors see clearcutting as synonymous with deforestation, destroying natural habitats and contributing to climate change. learcutting can be practiced to encourage tree species that require high light intensity. Generally, a harvest area wider than double the height of the adjacent trees will no longer be subject to the moderating influence of the woodland on the microclimate. The width of the harvest area can thus determine which species will come to dominate. Those with high tolerance to extremes in temperature, soil moisture, and resistance to browsing may be established, in particular secondary successional pioneer species. Clearcutting can be used by foresters as a method of mimicking disturbance and increasing primary successional species, such as poplar (aspen), willow and black cherry in North America. Clearcutting has also proved to be effective in creating animal habitat and browsing areas, which otherwise would not exist without natural stand-replacing disturbances such as wildfires, large scale windthrow, or avalanches. In temperate and boreal climates, clearcutting can have an effect on the depth of snow, which is usually greater in a clearcut area than in the forest, due to a lack of interception and evapotranspiration. This results in less soil frost, which in combination with higher levels of direct sunlight results in snowmelt occurring earlier in the spring. Clearcutting can have major negative impacts, both for humans and local flora and fauna. A study from the University of Oregon found that in certain zones, areas that were clear cut had nearly three times the amount of erosion due to slides. When the roads required by the clearcutting were factored in, the increase in slide activity appeared to be about 5 times greater compared to nearby forested areas. Clearcutting can also lead to an increased possibility of rapid runoff, loss of economic sustainability in that no timber products are available for long time after clearcutting, loss of habitat for some wildlife species, unattractive visual effect, greater possibility of unwanted shrub and grasses becoming established., as well as a decrease in property values; diminished recreation, hunting, and fishing opportunities. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

Saltwater or estuarine crocodile is the largest of all living reptiles. It is found in suitable habitats throughout Southeast Asia, Northern Australia, and the surrounding waters. An adult male saltwater crocodile's weight is 8803,300 lb and length is normally 1317 ft, though very old males can be 20 ft or more. The largest size saltwater crocodiles can reach is the subject of considerable controversy. The longest crocodile ever measured snout-to-tail and verified was the skin of a deceased crocodile, which was 20 feet long. Since skins tend to shrink slightly after removal from the carcass, this crocodile's living length was estimated at 20.7ft or 27 feet if the animal were 20ft 7inches long then the Nile would be the largest crocodile measuring 21 feet long but the debate over the largest crocodile still goes on, and it probably weighed well over 2,600 lb. The saltwater crocodile is an opportunistic apex predator capable of taking nearly any animal that enters its territory, either in the water or on dry land. They have also been known to attack humans. Juveniles are restricted to smaller animals such as insects, amphibians, crustaceans, small reptiles and fish. The larger the animal grows, the greater the variety of animals it includes in the diet, although relatively small prey make up an important part of the diet even in adults. Large adult saltwater crocodiles can potentially eat any animal within its range, including monkeys, kangaroos, wild boar, dingos, goannas, birds, domestic livestock, pets, water buffalo, gaurs, sharks, and even humans, among other large animals as well. Domestic cattle, horses, water buffalo and gaur, all of which may weigh over a ton, are considered the largest prey taken by male crocodiles. Most prey animals are killed by the great jaw pressure of the crocodile, although some animals may be incidentally drowned. It is an immensely powerful animal, having the strength to drag a fully grown water buffalo into a river, or crush a full-grown bovid's skull between its jaws. Its typical hunting technique is known as the "death roll," it grabs onto the animal and rolls powerfully. This throws any struggling large animal off balance making it easier to drag it into the water. The "death roll" is also used for tearing apart large animals once they are dead. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, during the Six-Day War. The combined air and sea attack killed 34 crew members (naval officers, seamen, two Marines, and one civilian), wounded 171 crew members, and severely damaged the ship.At the time, the ship was in international waters north of the Sinai Peninsula, about 25.5 nmi northwest from the Egyptian city of Arish. After being cleared to attack, the Mirages dove on the ship and attacked with 30-mm cannons and rockets. The attack came a few minutes after the crew completed a chemical attack drill, with Captain McGonagle on the command bridge. The crew was in "stand-down mode", with their helmets and life jackets removed, except battle readiness "modified condition three" was set which meant that the ship's four .50 caliber machine guns were manned and ammunition ready for loading and firing. Eight crewmen were either killed immediately or died later, and 75 were wounded. Among the wounded was McGonagle, who was hit in the right thigh and arm. During the attack, antennas were severed, gas drums caught fire, and the ship's flag was knocked down. McGonagle sent an urgent request for help to the Sixth Fleet, "Under attack by unidentified jet aircraft, require immediate assistance." Israel apologized for the attack, saying that the USS Liberty had been attacked in error after being mistaken for an Egyptian ship. Both the Israeli and U.S. governments conducted inquiries and issued reports that concluded the attack was a mistake due to Israeli confusion about the ship's identity, though others, including survivors of the attack, have rejected these conclusions and maintain that the attack was deliberate. In May 1968, the Israeli government paid $3,323,500 ($21.9 million in 2013) as full payment to the families of the 34 men killed in the attack. In March 1969, Israel paid a further $3,566,457 in compensation to the men who had been wounded. On 18 December 1980, it agreed to pay $6 million as settlement for the final U.S. bill of $17,132,709 for material damage to the Liberty itself plus 13 years' interest. McGonagle received the Medal of Honor, the highest U.S. medal, for his actions. The Medal of Honor is generally presented by the President of the United States in the White House, but this time it was awarded at the Washington Navy Yard by the Secretary of the Navy in an unpublicized ceremony, breaking with established tradition. Other Liberty sailors received decorations for their actions during and after the attack, but most of the award citations omitted mention of Israel as the perpetrator. In 2009, however, a Silver Star awarded to crewmember Terry Halbardier, who braved machine-gun and cannon fire to repair a damaged antenna that restored the ship's communications, in the award citation named Israel as the attacker.[READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]

A lava lamp is a novelty item used for decoration rather than illumination; the slow, interesting rise and fall of variously-shaped blobs of wax is suggestive of lava, hence the name. The lamps are available with a variety of styles and colors of wax and liquid. The lamp contains either an incandescent bulb or halogen lamp which heats a tall (often tapered) glass bottle containing water (often with glycerol derived additive) and a transparent, translucent or opaque mix of wax and carbon tetrachloride (although other combinations may be used). The wax is slightly denser than water at room temperature but is less dense under warmer conditions. This occurs because wax expands more than water when both are heated. When heated, wax becomes fluid, its specific gravity decreases, and blobs of wax ascend to the top of the device[4] where they cool and then descend. A metallic wire coil in the base of the bottle acts as a surface tension breaker to recombine the cooled blobs of wax after they descend. The bulb is normally about 25 to 40 Watts. It may take 30 to 60 minutes for the wax to warm up enough to freely form rising blobs (depending on the original temperature). Once the wax is molten the lamp should not be shaken or knocked over or the two fluids may emulsify and the wax/blobs will remain cloudy rather than clear. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE] is not affiliated with or endorsed by wikipedia. wikipedia and the wikipedia globe are registered trademarks of
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