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The Mosin–Nagant is a bolt-action, internal magazine-fed, military rifle used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations. The 3-line rifle, Model 1891 (its official designation at the time) was adopted by the Russian Military in 1891. There have been several variations from the original rifle, the most common being the M1891/30, which was designed in 1930. Some details were borrowed from Nagant's design: the principle that the magazine spring is attached to the magazine base plate (in Mosin's original design, the spring was not attached to the base plate and according to the Commission could therefore be lost during cleaning), the form of the clip holding cartridges and used for simultaneous loading of five cartridges into the magazine and the form of the "interrupter"—a detail in the feeding mechanism preventing stoppages due to feeding two cartridges at the same time. Production of the Model 1891 began in 1892 at the ordnance factories of Tula Arsenal, Izhevsk Arsenal, and Sestroryetsk Arsenal. By the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, approximately 3.8 million rifles had been delivered to the Russian army. Initial reactions by units equipped with the rifle were mixed, but any adverse reports were likely due to poor maintenance of the Mosins by infantrymen more familiar with the Berdan who were not properly trained on the Mosin-Nagant. Between the adoption of the final design in 1891 and the year 1910, several variants and modifications to the existing rifles were made. Large numbers of Mosin–Nagants were captured by German and Austro-Hungarian forces and saw service with the rear-echelon forces of both armies, and also with the German navy. Many of these weapons were sold to Finland in the 1920s. When the Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941 the Mosin–Nagant was the standard issue weapon of Soviet troops. As a result, millions of the rifles were produced and used in World War II by the largest mobilized army in history. The Mosin–Nagant was adopted as a sniper rifle in 1932 and was issued to Soviet snipers. It served quite prominently in the brutal urban battles on the Eastern Front, such as the Battle of Stalingrad, which made heroes of snipers like Vasili Zaitsev and Ivan Sidorenko. The sniper rifles were very much respected for being very rugged, reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Finland also employed the Mosin–Nagant as a sniper rifle, with similar success. For example, Simo Häyhä is credited with killing 505 Soviet soldiers using his M28 Mosin–Nagant. By the end of the war, approximately 17.4 million M91/30 rifles had been produced. Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Mosin–Nagants are still commonly found on modern battlefields around the world. They are being used by insurgent forces in the Iraq War and the current war in Afghanistan. Separatists have also used the rifles alongside more modern Russian firearms in the Second war in Chechnya. [READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE]
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