Tag - medical

Skin Cell Gun

The skin cell gun is an experimental device for the treatment of second degree burns developed by Jorg C. Gerlach and colleagues of the Department of Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh’s McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Stem cells from a b...

Cleft Lip and Palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, which can also occur together as cleft lip and palate, are variations of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. A cleft is a fissure or opening—a gap. It is the non-fusion...

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania, which is classified as an impulse control disorder by DSM-IV, is the compulsive urge to pull out one's own hair leading to noticeable hair loss, distress, and social or functional impairment. It is often chronic and difficult to treat. It...

Bovine somatotropin

Bovine somatotropin (abbreviated bST and BST), or BGH, is a chain of amino acids produced by the cow's pituitary gland. Like other hormones, it is produced in small quantities and is used in regulating metabolic processes. Since 1994 it has been possible t...

Giant Roundworm

Ascaris lumbricoides is the giant roundworm of humans, belonging to the phylum Nematoda. An ascarid nematode, it is responsible for the disease ascariasis in humans, and it is the largest and most common parasitic worm in humans. It can reach a length of u...

I've Fallen And I Can't Get Up!

"I've fallen... and I can't get up!" was a catchphrase of the late 1980s and early 1990s popular culture based upon a line from a United States-based television commercial. This line was spoken in a television commercial for a medical alarm and protection ...

Ameloblastoma

Ameloblastoma is a rare, benign tumor of odontogenic epithelium much more commonly appearing in the lower jaw than the upper jaw. It was recognized in 1827 by Cusack. This type of odontogenic neoplasm was designated as an adamantinoma in 1885 by the Frenc...

Spinal Disc Herniation

A spinal disc herniation (prolapsus disci intervertebralis), informally and misleadingly called a "slipped disc", is a medical condition affecting the spine, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc (discus in...

Liposuction

Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty ("fat modeling"), liposculpture suction lipectomy or simply lipo ("suction-assisted fat removal") is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. Areas affected can range f...

Marlboro Man

The Marlboro Man is a figure used in tobacco advertising campaign for Marlboro cigarettes. In the United States, where the campaign originated, it was used from 1954 to 1999. The Marlboro Man was first conceived by Leo Burnett in 1954. The image involves a...

Ecdysis

Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). Since the cuticula of these animals is also the skeletal support (the exoskeleton) of the body and is inelastic, it is shed during growth and a new, larger covering is fo...

Tattoo Removal

Tattoo removal has been performed with various tools during the history of tattooing. While tattoos were once considered permanent, it is now possible to remove them with treatments, fully or partially. The expense and pain of removing tattoos will typical...

Aortic Dissection

Aortic dissection is a tear in the wall of the aorta that causes blood to flow between the layers of the wall of the aorta and force the layers apart.[1] Aortic dissection is a medical emergency and can quickly lead to death, even with optimal treatment. I...

Fencing Response

The fencing response is an unnatural position of the arms following a concussion. Immediately after moderate forces have been applied to the brainstem, the forearms are held flexed or extended (typically into the air) for a period lasting up to several sec...

Bunion

A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the head of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe (hallux) may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender. The t...

Bone fracture

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high force impact or stress, bone fracture can also occur as a result of cert...

Emphysema

Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of the lung that primarily causes shortness of breath. In people with emphysema, the lung tissues necessary to support the physical shape and function of the lung are destroyed. It is included in a group of dis...

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Each year in the United States, about 42,470 individuals are diagnosed with this condition and 35,240 die from the disease. The prognosis is relatively poor but has improved; the three-year surviva...

Cauliflower Ear

Cauliflower ear (also hematoma auris, perichondrial hematoma, and Traumatic auricular hematoma) is a condition most common among boxers, amateur wrestlers, professional wrestlers, rugby players, and mixed martial artists. If the external portion of the ear...

Petroleum Toxicity

There are a number of environmental issues with petroleum as a result of it being toxic to almost all forms of life. The possibility of climate change exists. Petroleum, commonly referred to as oil, is closely linked to virtually all aspects of present soc...

Celiac Disease

Coeliac disease, spelled celiac disease in North America, is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy onward. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive (in child...

Air Ambulance

An air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditional ambulance cannot reach the scene easily or quickly enough, or the patient needs to be transported over a distance or terrain that makes air trans...

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), is associated by symptoms and signs, which are caused by compression of the median nerve travelling through the carpal tunnel. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome affects the hands since it is an upper limb neuropathy that results in motor...

Nasal Irrigation

Nasal irrigation or nasal lavage is the personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to flush out excess mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses. It has been practised in India for centuries as one of the disciplines of yoga. Some clini...

Tapeworm Infection

Tapeworm infestation is the infection of the digestive tract by adult parasitic flatworms called cestodes or tapeworms. Live tapeworm larvae (coenuri) are sometimes ingested by consuming undercooked food. Once inside the digestive tract, a larva can grow i...

Vocal Chords

The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. Open during inhalatio...

Cerebral Aneurysm

A cerebral or brain aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. A common location of cerebral aneurysms is on the arteries at the base of t...

LASIK

LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a type of refractive surgery for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. LASIK is performed by ophthalmologists using a laser. LASIK is similar to other surgical corrective procedures such as...

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans. Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when...

Sebaceous Cyst

A sebaceous cyst (a form of trichilemmal cyst) also known as a "wen", is a closed sac or cyst below the surface of the skin that has a lining that resembles the uppermost part (infundibulum) of a hair follicle and fills with a fatty white, semi-solid mater...

Antivenom

Antivenom is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. Antivenom is created by milking venom from the desired snake, spider or insect. The venom is then diluted and injected into a horse, sheep, goat or cat. The subject animal...

Venipuncture

In medicine, venepuncture,venopuncture or venipuncture is the process of obtaining intravenous access for the purpose of intravenous therapy or obtaining a sample of venous blood. This procedure is performed by medical laboratory scientists, medical practi...

Brain Tumor

A brain tumor (or brain tumour) is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal. Brain tumors include all tumors inside the cranium or in the central spinal canal. They are cr...

Nitroglycerin

Nitroglycerin (NG), (United States spelling) also known as nitroglycerine, (UK spelling), trinitroglycerin, trinitroglycerine, 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane and glyceryl trinitrate, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. Si...

Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robot-assisted surgery are terms for various technological developments that currently are developed to support a range of surgical procedures. Robot-assisted surgery was developed to overcome limitations of ...

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract. Metabolic changes of the crystalline lens fibers over time lead to the development of t...

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal illness caused by a bacterial toxin. Different bacterial toxins may cause toxic shock syndrome, depending on the situation. The causative bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. S...

Placebo

A placebo is a sham or simulated medical intervention. Sometimes patients given a placebo treatment will have a perceived or actual improvement in a medical condition, a phenomenon commonly called the placebo effect. In medical research, placebos are given...

Arachnoid Cyst

Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid covered by arachnoidal cells and collagen that may develop between the surface of the brain and the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane, one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. Arac...

Insect Repellent

An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. There are also insect repellent products available based on sound production, pa...

Pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. The primary p...

Knee Replacement

Knee replacement, or knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve the pain and disability of osteoarthritis. It may be performed for other knee diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psor...

Blepharoplasty (Eyelid Surgery)

Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fat are removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery. Blepharoplasty is often done as ...

Flesh Eating Bacteria

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue. Type I describ...

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. ...

Cysticercosis

Cysticercosis, or neurocysticercosis, is the most common parasitic infestation of the central nervous system worldwide. Humans develop cysticercosis when they ingest eggs or larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The eggs and larvae are usually found in fec...

Ingrown Toenail

The main cause for onychocryptosis or "ingrown nail" is improper footwear including shoes with inadequate toe-box room and tight stockings that apply top and or side pressures; next is the damp wet atmosphere toes are subjected to all day in enclosed shoes...

Aortic Aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. While the stretched vessel may occasionally cause discomfort, a greater conc...

Abdominoplasty

Abdominoplasty or "tummy tuck" is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to make the abdomen more firm. The surgery involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen in order to tighten the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall. Th...

Maggot Therapy

Maggot therapy (also known as maggot debridement therapy (MDT), larval therapy, larva therapy, larvae therapy, biodebridement or biosurgery) is a type of biotherapy involving the intentional introduction by a health care practitioner of live, disinfected m...

Hemorroids

Hemorrhoids, haemorrhoids, emerods, or piles are swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. The anatomical term "hemorrhoids" technically refers to "'Cushions of tissue filled with blood vessels at the junction of the rectum and the anus." ...

Dental Braces

Dental braces (also known as orthodontic braces, or simply braces) are a device used in orthodontics to align teeth and their position with regard to a person's bite. They are often used to correct malocclusions such as underbites, overbites, cross bite an...

Rhinoplasty

Rhinoplasty (Greek: Rhinos, "Nose" + Plassein, "to shape") is a surgical procedure which is usually performed by either an otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon, maxillofacial surgeon, or plastic surgeon in order to improve the function or the appearance ...

Surgical Suture

Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery. It generally consists of a needle with an attached length of thread. A number of different shapes, sizes, and thread materials have been developed over its m...

Möbius Syndrome

Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital neurological disorder which is characterized by facial paralysis and the inability to move the eyes from side to side. Most people with Möbius syndrome are born with complete facial paralysis and cannot close...

Tonsillolith

A tonsillolith, also known as a tonsil stone or a zot, is a piece or, more commonly, a cluster of calcareous matter that forms in the rear of the mouth, in the crevasses (called tonsillar crypts) of the palatine tonsils (commonly known as tonsils). Protrud...

Lumbar Puncture

In medicine, a lumbar puncture (colloquially known as a spinal tap) is a diagnostic and at times therapeutic procedure that is performed in order to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological analysis, o...

Kidney Transplant

The first documented kidney transplant in the United States was performed June 17, 1950, on Ruth Tucker, a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois. Although the donated kidney was rej...

Floater

Floaters are deposits of various size, shape, consistency, refractive index, and motility within the eye's vitreous humour, which is normally transparent. They may be of embryonic origin or acquired due to degenerative changes of the vitreous humour or ret...

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) occurs when an outside force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g. occurring in a speci...

Concussion

Concussion, from the Latin concutera ("to shake violently") or the Latin concussus ("action of striking together"), is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The terms mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), mild head injury (MHI), ...

Rhytidectomy (Facelift)

A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (literally, surgical removal of wrinkles), is a type of cosmetic surgery procedure used to give a more youthful appearance. It usually involves the removal of excess facial skin, with or without the tightenin...

Breast Reduction

Breast reduction or reduction mammoplasty is a common surgical procedure which involves the reduction in the size of breasts by excising fat, skin, breast implants and glandular tissue; it may also involve a procedure to counteract drooping of the breasts....

Chalazion

A chalazion, also known as a meibomian gland lipogranuloma, is a cyst in the eyelid that is caused by inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland, usually on the upper eyelid. Chalazions differ from styes (hordeolums) in that they are more painful than styes...

Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart and/or great vessels performed by a cardiac surgeon. Frequently, it is done to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat ...

Breast Implant

A breast implant is a prosthesis used to alter the size and shape of a woman's breasts for cosmetic reasons, to reconstruct the breast (e.g. after a mastectomy or to correct congenital chest wall deformities), or as an aspect of male-to-female sex reassig...

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep apnea caused by obstruction of the airway. It is characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. These episodes, called apneas (literally, "without breath"), each last long enough that one or more breaths ...

Down Syndrome

Down syndrome, Down's syndrome, trisomy 21, or trisomy G, is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. It is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described the syndrome in 1866. The disord...

White Blood Cell

Down syndrome, Down's syndrome, trisomy 21, or trisomy G, is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. It is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described the syndrome in 1866. The disord...

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